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Amazon Relational Database Service
User Guide (API Version 2014-10-31)

DB Instance Class

The computation and memory capacity of a DB instance is determined by its DB instance class. You can change the CPU and memory available to a DB instance by changing its DB instance class; to change the DB instance class, you must modify the DB instance.

For more information about DB instance class pricing, see Amazon RDS Pricing.

The DB instance class you need depends on your processing power and memory requirements. There are DB instance classes that support both "bursty" database access and sustained access. For best practices suggestions on determining your memory needs, see DB Instance RAM Recommendations. For more information about storage choices, see Storage for Amazon RDS.

Current DB Instance Classes

Current DB instance classes include the following:

Instance Type Current DB Instance Classes
Standard Current Generation (db.m4)

db.m4.large | db.m4.xlarge | db.m4.2xlarge | db.m4.4xlarge | db.m4.10xlarge | db.m4.16xlarge

Memory Optimized Current Generation (db.r3) db.r3.large | db.r3.xlarge | db.r3.2xlarge | db.r3.4xlarge | db.r3.8xlarge
Memory Optimized Next Generation (db.r4) db.r4.large | db.r4.xlarge | db.r4.2xlarge | db.r4.4xlarge | db.r4.8xlarge | db.r4.16xlarge
Burst Capable Current Generation (db.t2) db.t2.micro | db.t2.small | db.t2.medium | db.t2.large | db.t2.xlarge | db.t2.2xlarge

Standard Current Generation (db.m4)

Standard Latest Generation (db.m4) instances are third generation instances that provide more computing capacity than the second generation db.m3 instance classes at a lower price. This DB instance class requires that the DB instance be in a VPC.

Current generation instance classes are available for the following DB engines:

DB Engine Availability
Amazon Aurora Aurora is not supported.
MariaDB All versions are supported. Class db.m4.16xlarge is not supported.
Microsoft SQL Server

See DB Instance Class Support for Microsoft SQL Server.

MySQL MySQL version 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7 are supported. Class db.m4.16xlarge is not supported.
Oracle

See DB Instance Class Support for Oracle.

PostgreSQL All versions are supported. Class db.m4.16xlarge is not supported.

Memory Optimized Current Generation (db.r3)

Memory Optimized Current Generation (db.r3) instances are second generation instances that provide memory optimization and more computing capacity than the first generation db.m2 instance classes, at a lower price. The db.r3 DB instances classes are not available in the South America (São Paulo) region.

Memory optimized instances (db.r3) are available for the following DB engines:

DB Engine Availability
Amazon Aurora All versions are supported for Aurora MySQL. Aurora PostgreSQL is not supported.
MariaDB All versions are supported.
Microsoft SQL Server

See DB Instance Class Support for Microsoft SQL Server.

MySQL MySQL version 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7 are supported.
Oracle

See DB Instance Class Support for Oracle.

PostgreSQL All versions are supported.

MySQL DB instances created after April 23, 2014, can switch to the db.r3 instance classes by modifying the DB instance just as with any other modification. MySQL DB instances running MySQL versions 5.5 and created before April 23, 2014, must first upgrade to MySQL version 5.6. For information on upgrading a MySQL DB instance, see Upgrading a DB Instance Engine Version. For more information, see R3 Instances in the Amazon EC2 documentation.

Memory Optimized Next Generation (db.r4)

Memory Optimized Next Generation (db.r4) instances are optimized for memory-intensive applications and offer better price per GiB of RAM than the db.r3 instance classes, at a lower price.

Memory optimized instances (db.r4) are available for the following DB engines.

DB Engine Availability
Amazon Aurora Aurora MySQL version 1.15 and later, and all versions of Aurora PostgreSQL are supported.
MariaDB MariaDB is not supported.
Microsoft SQL Server

See DB Instance Class Support for Microsoft SQL Server.

MySQL MySQL is not supported.
Oracle

See DB Instance Class Support for Oracle.

PostgreSQL PostgreSQL is not supported.

For more information, see Memory Optimized Instances in the Amazon EC2 User Guide for Linux Instances.

Burst Capable Current Generation (db.t2)

Burst Capable Current Generation (db.t2) instances are instances that provide baseline performance level with the ability to burst to full CPU usage. This DB instance class requires that the DB instance be in a VPC.

If you have an existing DB instance that you want to move to the db.t2 DB instance class, the db.t2 DB instance class requires a VPC. If your current DB instance is not in a VPC, see Moving a DB Instance Not in a VPC into a VPC to find out how to move a DB instance not in a VPC into a VPC. For more information about T2 instances used with the db.t2 DB instance class, see T2 Instances in the Amazon EC2 documentation.

DB Engine Availability
Amazon Aurora

Aurora versions 1.9 and later support the db.t2.medium instance class for Aurora MySQL. Aurora versions 1.11 and later support both the db.t2.medium and db.t2.small instance classes for Aurora MySQL.

Aurora PostgreSQL is not supported.

MariaDB All versions are supported. Classes db.t2.xlarge and db.t2.2xlarge are not supported.
Microsoft SQL Server

See DB Instance Class Support for Microsoft SQL Server.

MySQL MySQL versions 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7 are supported. Classes db.t2.xlarge and db.t2.2xlarge are not supported.
Oracle

See DB Instance Class Support for Oracle.

PostgreSQL All versions are supported. Classes db.t2.xlarge and db.t2.2xlarge are not supported.

Previous Generation DB Instance Classes

Previous generation DB instance classes include the following:

Instance Type Previous Generation DB Instance Classes
Standard Previous Generation (db.m3)

db.m3.medium | db.m3.large | db.m3.xlarge | db.m3.2xlarge

Standard Previous Generation (db.m1)

db.m1.small | db.m1.medium | db.m1.large | db.m1.xlarge

Memory Optimized Previous Generation (db.m2)

db.m2.xlarge | db.m2.2xlarge | db.m2.4xlarge

Standard Previous Generation (db.m3)

Standard Previous Generation (db.m3) instances are second generation instances that provide a balance of compute, memory, and network resources, and are a good choice for many applications.

Standard Previous Generation (db.m1)

Standard Previous Generation (db.m1) instances are previous generation general-purpose instances. For more information, see Instance Type in the Amazon EC2 documentation. PostgreSQL version 9.5.2, MySQL version 5.7, and Amazon Aurora do not support previous generation instance classes.

Memory Optimized Previous Generation (db.m2)

Memory Optimized Previous Generation (db.m2) instances are first generation memory-optimized instances. For more information, see Instance Type in the Amazon EC2 documentation. PostgreSQL version 9.5.2, MySQL version 5.7, and Amazon Aurora do not support this instance class.

Specifications for All Available DB Instance Classes

The following table provides details of the Amazon RDS DB instance classes. The table columns are:

  • vCPU – A virtual CPU, or virtual central processing unit, is a unit of capacity that you can use to compare DB instance classes. Instead of purchasing or leasing a particular processor to use for several months or years, you are renting capacity by the hour. Our goal is to provide a consistent amount of CPU capacity no matter what the actual underlying hardware.

  • ECU – The EC2 Compute Unit provides the relative measure of the integer processing power of an Amazon EC2 instance. In order to make it easy for developers to compare CPU capacity between different instance classes, we have defined an Amazon EC2 Compute Unit. The amount of CPU that is allocated to a particular instance is expressed in terms of these EC2 Compute Units. One ECU currently provides CPU capacity equivalent to a 1.0-1.2 GHz 2007 Opteron or 2007 Xeon processor.

  • Memory (GiB) – Specifies the RAM memory, in gibibytes, allocated to the DB instance. There is often a consistent ratio between memory and vCPU. For example, the db.m1 DB instance class has the same memory to vCPU ratio as the db.m3 DB instance class, but db.m3 instance classes provide better, more consistent performance that db.m1 instances for most use cases. db.m3 instance classes are also less expensive than db.m1 instances.

  • EBS-optimized – The DB instance uses an optimized configuration stack and provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) I/O. This optimization provides the best performance for your Amazon EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O and other traffic from your instance. The column shows the maximum bandwidth in megabits per second. Divide by 8 to get the expected throughput in megabytes per second. For more information about Amazon EBS–optimized instances, see Amazon EBS–Optimized Instances in the Amazon EC2 documentation.

    Important

    For general purpose (gp2) storage, the maximum throughput is 1,280 Mbps (160 MB/s).

  • Network Performance – The network speed relative to other DB instance classes.

Instance Class vCPU ECU Memory (GiB) EBS Optimized Max. bandwidth (Mbps) Network Performance
Micro Instances
db.m1.small 1 1 1.7 No Very Low
Standard—Current Generation (VPC only)
db.m4.large 2 6.5 8 450 Mbps Moderate
db.m4.xlarge 4 13 16 750 Mbps High
db.m4.2xlarge 8 25.5 32 1000 Mbps High
db.m4.4xlarge 16 53.5 64 2,000 Mbps High
db.m4.10xlarge 40 124.5 160 4,000 Mbps 10 Gbps
db.m4.16xlarge 64 188 256 10,000 Mbps 25 Gbps
Memory Optimized—Current Generation
db.r3.large 2 6.5 15.25 No Moderate
db.r3.xlarge 4 13 30.5 500 Mbps Moderate
db.r3.2xlarge 8 26 61 1,000 Mbps High
db.r3.4xlarge 16 52 122 2,000 Mbps High
db.r3.8xlarge 32 104 244 No 10 Gbps
Memory Optimized—Next Generation
db.r4.large 2 7 15.25 437 Mbps Up to 10 Gbps
db.r4.xlarge 4 13.5 30.5 875 Mbps Up to 10 Gbps
db.r4.2xlarge 8 27 61 1,750 Mbps Up to 10 Gbps
db.r4.4xlarge 16 53 122 3,500 Mbps Up to 10 Gbps
db.r4.8xlarge 32 99 244 7,000 Mbps 10 Gbps
db.r4.16xlarge 64 195 488 14,000 Mbps 25 Gbps
Burst Capable—Current Generation (VPC only)
db.t2.micro 1 1 1 No Low
db.t2.small 1 1 2 No Low
db.t2.medium 2 2 4 No Moderate
db.t2.large 2 2 8 No Moderate
db.t2.xlarge 4 4 16 No Moderate
db.t2.2xlarge 8 8 32 No Moderate
Standard—Previous Generation
db.m3.medium 1 3 3.75 No Moderate
db.m3.large 2 6.5 7.5 No Moderate
db.m3.xlarge 4 13 15 500 Mbps High
db.m3.2xlarge 8 26 30 1,000 Mbps High
db.m1.small 1 1 1.7 No Low
db.m1.medium 1 1 3.75 No Moderate
db.m1.large 2 2 7.5 450 Mbps Moderate
db.m1.xlarge 4 4 15 450 Mbps High
Memory Optimized—Previous Generation
db.m2.xlarge 2 6.5 17.1 No Moderate
db.m2.2xlarge 4 13 34.2 500 Mbps Moderate
db.m2.4xlarge 8 26 68.4 1,000 Mbps High