You can monitor the MySQL error log, slow query log, and the general log directly through the Amazon RDS console, Amazon RDS API, Amazon RDS CLI, or AWS SDKs. You can use the mysqlbinlog utility to download or stream a binary log. The MySQL error log is generated by default; you can generate the slow query and general logs by setting parameters in your DB parameter group. Amazon RDS rotates all of the MySQL log files, the intervals for each type are given below.
MySQL on Amazon RDS supports both the row-based and mixed binary logging formats for MySQL version 5.6. The default binary logging format is mixed. For DB instances running MySQL versions 5.1 and 5.5, only mixed binary logging is supported. For details on the different MySQL binary log formats, see Binary Logging Formats in the MySQL Reference Manual.
Setting the binary logging format to row-based can result in very large binary log files. Large binary log files reduce the amount of storage available for a DB instance and can increase the amount of time to perform a restore operation of a DB instance.
To set the MySQL binary logging format:
Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.
Clickin the left pane.
For the default.mysql5.6 DB parameter group, click the Go to Details Page icon.
Click thebutton to modify the parameters in the DB parameter group.
binlog_format parameter to the binary logging format of your choice
(MIXED or ROW).
Click thebutton to save the updates to the DB parameter group.
Changing the default.mysql5.6 DB parameter group affects all MySQL version 5.6 DB instances that use that parameter group. If you want to specify different binary logging formats for different MySQL 5.6 DB instances in a region, you will need to create your own DB parameter group that identifies the different logging format and assign that DB parameter group to the intended DB instances.
For more information on DB parameter groups, see Working with DB Parameter Groups.
The MySQL error log is written to the
mysql-error.log file. You can
mysql-error.log by using the Amazon RDS console or by
retrieving the log using the Amazon RDS API, Amazon RDS CLI, or AWS SDKs.
is flushed every 5 minutes, and its contents are appended to
mysql-error-running.log file is then rotated every hour and
the hourly files generated during the last 24 hours are retained. Each log file has
the hour it was generated (in UTC) appended to its name. The log files also have a
timestamp that helps you determine when the log entries were written.
MySQL writes to the error log only on startup, shutdown, and when it encounters errors. A DB instance can go hours or days without new entries being written to the error log. If you see no recent entries, it's because the server did not encounter an error that would result in a log entry.
The MySQL slow query log and the general log can be written to a file or a database table by setting parameters in your DB parameter group. For information about creating and modifying a DB parameter group, see Working with DB Parameter Groups. You must set these parameters before you can view the slow query log or general log in the Amazon RDS console or by using the Amazon RDS API, Amazon RDS CLI, or AWS SDKs.
You can control MySQL logging by using the parameters in this list:
slow_query_log: To create the slow query log, set to 1. The
default is 0.
general_log: To create the general log, set to 1. The default is
long_query_time: To prevent fast-running queries from being
logged in the slow query log, specify a value for the shortest query
execution time to be logged, in seconds. The default is 10 seconds, the
minimum is 0. If log_output = FILE, you can specify a floating point value
that goes to microsecond resolution. If log_output = TABLE, you must specify
an integer value with second resolution. Only queries whose execution time
long_query_time value are logged. For
long_query_time to 0.1 prevents any
query that runs for less than 100 milliseconds from being logged.
log_queries_not_using_indexes: To log all queries that do not use
an index to the slow query log, set to 1. The default is 0. Queries that do
not use an index are logged even if their execution time is less than the
value of the
log_output : You can specify
one of the following options for the
TABLE (default)– Write general queries to the
mysql.general_log table, and slow queries to
FILE– Write both general and slow query logs to the file system. Log files are rotated hourly.
NONE– Disable logging.
When logging is enabled, Amazon RDS rotates table logs or deletes log files at regular intervals. This measure is
a precaution to reduce the possibility of a large log file either blocking database use or
TABLE logging approach rotation and
deletion as follows:
FILE logging is enabled, log files are examined every
hour and log files older than 24 hours are deleted. If the remaining combined log file
size after the deletion exceeds a threshold of 2% of a DB instance's allocated space, then the largest
log files are deleted until the log file size no longer exceeds the threshold.
TABLE logging is enabled, log tables are rotated every 24 hours
if the space used by the table logs is more than 20 percent of the allocated storage space or the
size of all logs
combined is greater than 10 GB. If the amount of space used for a DB instance
is greater than 90 percent of the DB instance's allocated storage space, then the thresholds for log rotation
are reduced. Log tables are then rotated if the space used by the table logs is more than 10 percent
of the allocated storage space
or the size of all logs combined is greater than 5 GB.
When log tables are rotated, the current log table is copied to a backup log table and the
entries in the current log table are removed. If the backup log table already exists, then it is
deleted before the current log table is copied to the backup. You can query the backup log table
if needed. The backup log table for the
mysql.general_log table is named
mysql.general_log_backup. The backup log table for the
mysql.slow_log table is named
You can rotate the
by calling the
You can rotate the
by calling the
Table logs are rotated during a database version upgrade.
Amazon RDS records both
FILE log rotation in an Amazon RDS event and
sends you a notification.
To work with the logs from the Amazon RDS console, Amazon RDS API, Amazon RDS CLI, or AWS SDKs, set the
log_output parameter to FILE. Like the MySQL error log,
these log files are rotated hourly. The log files that were generated during the previous
24 hours are retained.
For more information about the slow query and general logs, go to the following topics in the MySQL documentation:
You can access the file-based MySQL logs, such as the general or slow query logs, using the Amazon RDS features for working with logs:
The MySQL slow query log, error log, and the general log file sizes are constrained to no more than 2% of the allocated storage space for a DB instance. To maintain this threshold, logs are automatically rotated every hour and log files older than 24 hours are removed. If the combined log file size exceeds the threshold after removing old log files, then the largest log files are deleted until the log file size no longer exceeds the threshold.
For MySQL version 5.6.20 and later, there is a size limit on BLOBs written to the redo log. To account for this limit, ensure
innodb_log_file_size parameter for your MySQL DB instance is 10 times larger than the
largest BLOB data size found in your tables, plus the length of other variable length fields
TEXT) in the same tables.
For information on how to set parameter values, see Working with DB Parameter Groups. For information on the redo log BLOB size limit,
go to Changes in MySQL 5.6.20.
You can direct the general and slow query logs to tables on the DB instance by creating a
DB parameter group and setting the
TABLE. General queries are then logged to the
mysql.general_log table, and slow queries are logged to the
mysql.slow_log table. You can query the tables to access the log
information. Enabling this logging increases the amount of data written to the
database, which can degrade performance.
Both the general log and the slow query logs are disabled by default. In order to enable
logging to tables, you must also set the
slow_query_log server parameters to
Log tables will keep growing until the respective logging activities are turned off by
resetting the appropriate parameter to
0. A large amount of data often
accumulates over time, which can use up a considerable percentage of your allocated
storage space. Amazon RDS does not allow you to truncate the log tables, but you can
move their contents. Rotating a table saves its contents to a backup table and then
creates a new empty log table. You can manually rotate the log tables with the
following command line procedures, where the command prompt is indicated by
PROMPT> CALL mysql.rds_rotate_slow_log; PROMPT> CALL mysql.rds_rotate_general_log;
To completely remove the old data and reclaim the disk space, call the appropriate procedure twice in succession.
You can use the mysqlbinlog utility to download or stream binary logs from Amazon RDS instances running MySQL 5.6. The binary log is downloaded to your local computer, where you can perform actions such as replaying the log using the mysql utility. For more information about using the mysqlbinlog utility, go to Using mysqlbinlog to Back Up Binary Log Files.
To run the mysqlbinlog utility against an Amazon RDS instance, use the following options:
--host: Specify the DNS name from the endpoint of the instance.
--port: Specify the port used by the instance.
--user: Specify a MySQL user that has been granted the
replication slave permission.
--password: Specify the password for the user, or omit a
password value so the utility will prompt you for a password.
To have the file downloaded in binary format, specify the
--result-file: Specify the local file that will receive the raw
Specify the names of one or more binary log files. To get a list of the available logs, use the SQL command SHOW BINARY LOGS.
To stream the binary log files, specify the
For more information about mysqlbinlog options, go to mysqlbinlog - Utility for Processing Binary Log Files.
mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=MySQL56Instance1.cg034hpkmmjt.region.rds.amazonaws.com --port=3306 --user ReplUser --password --raw --result-file=/tmp/ binlog.00098
Amazon RDS normally purges a binary log as soon as possible, but the binary log must
still be available on the instance to be accessed by mysqlbinlog. To specify the
number of hours for RDS to retain binary logs, use the
mysql.rds_set_configuration stored procedure and specify a
period with enough time for you to download the logs. After you set the retention period,
monitor storage usage for the DB instance to ensure that the retained binary logs do not
take up too much storage.
This example sets the retention period to 1 day:
call mysql.rds_set_configuration('binlog retention hours', 24);
To display the current setting, use the