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Amazon Relational Database Service
User Guide (API Version 2014-10-31)

Updating the Operating System for a DB Instance or DB Cluster

With Amazon RDS, you can choose when to update the underlying operating system. You can decide when Amazon RDS applies OS updates by using the RDS console, AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), or RDS API.

Updates to the operating system most often occur for security issues and should be done as soon as possible. Choosing when to update lets you see ahead of time when a given required maintenance update is applied to DB instances or DB clusters, and also the ability to opt in to the maintenance ahead of the scheduled start time.

Note

DB instances are not automatically backed up when an OS update is applied, so you should back up your DB instances before you apply an update.

You can choose to apply OS updates on a DB instance or DB cluster at your convenience, or you can wait for the maintenance process initiated by Amazon RDS to apply the update during your maintenance window. You can view whether an OS update is available for your DB instance or DB cluster both on the Amazon RDS console and by using the AWS CLI or Amazon RDS API. If an update is available, it is indicated by the word Available in the Maintenance column for the DB instance or DB cluster on the Amazon RDS console. For OS updates that are marked Available, you can choose to do one of the following:

  • Defer the OS update.

  • Have the OS update applied immediately.

  • Schedule the OS update to be applied during your next maintenance window.

    Note

    The maintenance window determines when pending operations start, but it doesn't limit the total execution time of these operations. Maintenance operations are not guaranteed to finish before the maintenance window ends, and can continue beyond the specified end time.

Certain OS updates are marked as Required in the Maintenance column in the Amazon RDS console. These updates cannot be deferred indefinitely. If you choose to defer a required update, you receive a notice from Amazon RDS indicating the time when the update will be performed on your DB instance or DB cluster. Other updates are marked as Available. You can defer these OS updates indefinitely and the update will not be applied to your DB instance or DB cluster.

If you use the Amazon RDS console, it indicates when an operating system update is either available or required for your DB instance or DB cluster. For example, the following screenshot shows that an OS update is available.

Offline patch required

The Maintenance column indicates whatever option you select. For example, the following screenshot shows that the selected DB instance can be updated either immediately or during the DB instance's next maintenance window.

Offline patch next window

AWS Management Console

To manage an OS update for a DB instance or DB cluster

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Instances to manage updates for a DB instance, or Clusters to manage updates for an Aurora DB cluster.

  3. Select the check box for the DB instance or DB cluster that has a required operating system update.

  4. Choose Instance Actions for a DB instance, or Cluster Actions for a DB cluster, and then choose one of the following:

    • Upgrade Now

    • Upgrade at Next Window

      Note

      If you choose Upgrade at Next Window and later want to delay the OS update, you can select Defer Upgrade.

CLI

To apply a pending OS update to a DB instance or DB cluster, use the apply-pending-maintenance-action AWS CLI command.

Example

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds apply-pending-maintenance-action \
    --resource-identifier arn:aws:rds:us-west-2:001234567890:db:mysql-db \
    --apply-action system-update \
    --opt-in-type immediate

For Windows:

aws rds apply-pending-maintenance-action ^
    --resource-identifier arn:aws:rds:us-west-2:001234567890:db:mysql-db ^
    --apply-action system-update ^
    --opt-in-type immediate

To return a list of resources that have at least one pending OS update, use the describe-pending-maintenance-actions AWS CLI command.

Example

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds describe-pending-maintenance-actions \
    --resource-identifier arn:aws:rds:us-west-2:001234567890:db:mysql-db

For Windows:

aws rds describe-pending-maintenance-actions ^
    --resource-identifier arn:aws:rds:us-west-2:001234567890:db:mysql-db

You can also return a list of resources for a DB instance or DB cluster by specifying the --filters parameter of the describe-pending-maintenance-actions AWS CLI command. The format for the --filters command is Name=filter-name,Value=resource-id,....

The following are the accepted values for the Name parameter of a filter:

  • db-instance-id – Accepts a list of DB instance identifiers or Amazon Resource Names (ARNs). The returned list only includes pending maintenance actions for the DB instances identified by these identifiers or ARNs.

  • db-cluster-id – Accepts a list of DB cluster identifiers or ARNs. The returned list only includes pending maintenance actions for the DB clusters identified by these identifiers or ARNs.

For example, the following example returns the pending maintenance actions for the sample-cluster1 and sample-cluster2 DB clusters.

Example

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds describe-pending-maintenance-actions \
	--filters Name=db-cluster-id,Values=sample-cluster1,sample-cluster2

For Windows:

aws rds describe-pending-maintenance-actions ^
	--filters Name=db-cluster-id,Values=sample-cluster1,sample-cluster2

API

To apply an OS update to a DB instance or DB cluster, call the Amazon RDS API ApplyPendingMaintenanceAction action.

Example

https://rds.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/
   ?Action=ApplyPendingMaintenanceAction
   &ResourceIdentifier=arn:aws:rds:us-east-1:123456781234:db:my-instance
   &ApplyAction=system-update
   &OptInType=immediate
   &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256
   &SignatureVersion=4
   &Version=2014-10-31
   &X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256
   &X-Amz-Credential=AKIADQKE4SARGYLE/20141216/us-west-2/rds/aws4_request
   &X-Amz-Date=20140421T194732Z
   &X-Amz-SignedHeaders=content-type;host;user-agent;x-amz-content-sha256;x-amz-date
   &X-Amz-Signature=6e25c542bf96fe24b28c12976ec92d2f856ab1d2a158e21c35441a736e4fde2b 

To return a list of resources that have at least one pending OS update, call the Amazon RDS API DescribePendingMaintenanceActions action.

Example

https://rds.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/
   ?Action=DescribePendingMaintenanceActions
   &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256
   &SignatureVersion=4
   &Version=2014-10-31
   &X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256
   &X-Amz-Credential=AKIADQKE4SARGYLE/20141216/us-west-2/rds/aws4_request
   &X-Amz-Date=20140421T194732Z
   &X-Amz-SignedHeaders=content-type;host;user-agent;x-amz-content-sha256;x-amz-date
   &X-Amz-Signature=6e25c542bf96fe24b28c12976ec92d2f856ab1d2a158e21c35441a736e4fde2b