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This following diagram illustrates an example AWS Elastic Beanstalk architecture and shows how the components work together. The remainder of this section discusses all the components in more detail.
The environment is the heart of the application. In the diagram, the environment is delineated by the broken yellow line. When you create an environment, AWS Elastic Beanstalk provisions the resources required to run your application. AWS resources created for an environment include one elastic load balancer (ELB in the diagram), an Auto Scaling group, and one or more Amazon EC2 instances.
Every environment has a CNAME (URL) that points to a load balancer. The environment has a URL such as MyApp.elasticbeanstalk.com. This URL is aliased in Amazon Route 53 to an Elastic Load Balancing URL—something like abcdef-123456.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com—by using a CNAME record. Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It provides secure and reliable routing to your infrastructure. Your domain name that you registered with your DNS provider will forward requests to the CNAME. The load balancer sits in front of the Amazon EC2 instances, which are part of an Auto Scaling group. (The Auto Scaling group is delineated in the diagram by a broken black line.) Auto Scaling automatically starts additional Amazon EC2 instances to accommodate increasing load on your application. If the load on your application decreases, Auto Scaling stops instances, but always leaves at least one instance running. For information about how to map your root domain to your Elastic Load Balancer, see Using AWS Elastic Beanstalk with Amazon Route 53 to Map Your Domain to Your Load Balancer.
The software stack running on the Amazon EC2 instances is dependent on the container type. A container type defines the infrastructure topology and software stack to be used for that environment. For example, the AWS Elastic Beanstalk for Apache Tomcat 7 container uses the Amazon Linux operating system, Apache web server, and Apache Tomcat software. For a list of supported container types, see Supported Platforms. Each Amazon EC2 server instance that runs your application uses one of these container types. In addition, a software component called the host manager (HM) runs on each Amazon EC2 server instance. (In the diagram, the HM is an orange circle in each EC2 instance.) The host manager is responsible for:
Deploying the application
Aggregating events and metrics for retrieval via the console, the API, or the command line
Generating instance-level events
Monitoring the application log files for critical errors
Monitoring the application server
Patching instance components
Rotating your application's log files and publishing them to Amazon S3
The host manager reports metrics, errors and events, and server instance status, which are available via the AWS Management Console, APIs, and CLIs.
The Amazon EC2 instances shown in the diagram are part of one security group. A security group defines the firewall rules for your instances. By default, AWS Elastic Beanstalk defines a security group, which allows everyone to connect using port 80 (HTTP). You can define more than one security group. For instance, you can define a security group for your database server. For more information about Amazon EC2 security groups and how to configure them for your AWS Elastic Beanstalk application, see the Amazon EC2 Security Groups.