The FROM clause in a query lists the table references (tables, views, and subqueries) that data is selected from. If multiple table references are listed, the tables must be joined, using appropriate syntax in either the FROM clause or the WHERE clause. If no join criteria are specified, the system processes the query as a cross-join (Cartesian product).
where table_reference is one of the following:Copy
FROM table_reference [, ...]
with_subquery_table_name [ [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] ] table_name [ * ] [ [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] ] ( subquery ) [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] table_reference [ NATURAL ] join_type table_reference [ ON join_condition | USING ( join_column [, ...] ) ]
A table defined by a subquery in the WITH Clause.
Name of a table or view.
Temporary alternative name for a table or view. An alias must be supplied for a table derived from a subquery. In other table references, aliases are optional. The AS keyword is always optional. Table aliases provide a convenient shortcut for identifying tables in other parts of a query, such as the WHERE clause. For example:Copy
select * from sales s, listing l where s.listid=l.listid
Temporary alternative name for a column in a table or view.
A query expression that evaluates to a table. The table exists only for the duration of the query and is typically given a name or alias; however, an alias is not required. You can also define column names for tables that derive from subqueries. Naming column aliases is important when you want to join the results of subqueries to other tables and when you want to select or constrain those columns elsewhere in the query.
A subquery may contain an ORDER BY clause, but this clause may have no effect if a LIMIT or OFFSET clause is not also specified.
Defines a join that automatically uses all pairs of identically named columns in the two tables as the joining columns. No explicit join condition is required. For example, if the CATEGORY and EVENT tables both have columns named CATID, a natural join of those tables is a join over their CATID columns.
If a NATURAL join is specified but no identically named pairs of columns exist in the tables to be joined, the query defaults to a cross-join.
Specify one of the following types of join:
LEFT [OUTER] JOIN
RIGHT [OUTER] JOIN
FULL [OUTER] JOIN
- ON join_condition
Type of join specification where the joining columns are stated as a condition that follows the ON keyword. For example:Copy
sales join listing on sales.listid=listing.listid and sales.eventid=listing.eventid
- USING ( join_column [, ...] )
Type of join specification where the joining columns are listed in parentheses. If multiple joining columns are specified, they are delimited by commas. The USING keyword must precede the list. For example:Copy
sales join listing using (listid,eventid)
Cross-joins are unqualified joins; they return the Cartesian product of the two tables.
Inner and outer joins are qualified joins. They are qualified either implicitly (in natural joins); with the ON or USING syntax in the FROM clause; or with a WHERE clause condition.
An inner join returns matching rows only, based on the join condition or list of joining columns. An outer join returns all of the rows that the equivalent inner join would return plus non-matching rows from the "left" table, "right" table, or both tables. The left table is the first-listed table, and the right table is the second-listed table. The non-matching rows contain NULL values to fill the gaps in the output columns.
Joining columns must have comparable data types.
A NATURAL or USING join retains only one of each pair of joining columns in the intermediate result set.
A join with the ON syntax retains both joining columns in its intermediate result set.
See also WITH Clause.