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Amazon Redshift
Database Developer Guide (API Version 2012-12-01)

TO_CHAR

TO_CHAR converts a time stamp or numeric expression to a character-string data format.

Syntax

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TO_CHAR (timestamp_expression | numeric_expression , 'format')

Arguments

timestamp_expression

An expression that results in a TIMESTAMP or TIMESTAMPTZ type value or a value that can implicitly be coerced to a time stamp.

numeric_expression

An expression that results in a numeric data type value or a value that can implicitly be coerced to a numeric type. For more information, see Numeric Types. TO_CHAR inserts a space to the left of the numeral string.

Note

TO_CHAR does not support 128-bit DECIMAL values.

format

The format for the new value. For valid formats, see Datetime Format Strings and Numeric Format Strings.

Return Type

VARCHAR

Examples

The following example converts each STARTTIME value in the EVENT table to a string that consists of hours, minutes, and seconds.

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select to_char(starttime, 'HH12:MI:SS') from event where eventid between 1 and 5 order by eventid; to_char ---------- 02:30:00 08:00:00 02:30:00 02:30:00 07:00:00 (5 rows)

The following example converts an entire time stamp value into a different format.

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select starttime, to_char(starttime, 'MON-DD-YYYY HH12:MIPM') from event where eventid=1; starttime | to_char ---------------------+--------------------- 2008-01-25 14:30:00 | JAN-25-2008 02:30PM (1 row)

The following example converts a time stamp literal to a character string.

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select to_char(timestamp '2009-12-31 23:15:59','HH24:MI:SS'); to_char ---------- 23:15:59 (1 row)

The following example converts a number to a character string.

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select to_char(-125.8, '999D99S'); to_char --------- 125.80- (1 row)

The following example subtracts the commission from the price paid in the sales table. The difference is then rounded up and converted to a roman numeral, shown in the to_char column:

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select salesid, pricepaid, commission, (pricepaid - commission) as difference, to_char(pricepaid - commission, 'rn') from sales group by sales.pricepaid, sales.commission, salesid order by salesid limit 10; salesid | pricepaid | commission | difference | to_char ---------+-----------+------------+------------+----------------- 1 | 728.00 | 109.20 | 618.80 | dcxix 2 | 76.00 | 11.40 | 64.60 | lxv 3 | 350.00 | 52.50 | 297.50 | ccxcviii 4 | 175.00 | 26.25 | 148.75 | cxlix 5 | 154.00 | 23.10 | 130.90 | cxxxi 6 | 394.00 | 59.10 | 334.90 | cccxxxv 7 | 788.00 | 118.20 | 669.80 | dclxx 8 | 197.00 | 29.55 | 167.45 | clxvii 9 | 591.00 | 88.65 | 502.35 | dii 10 | 65.00 | 9.75 | 55.25 | lv (10 rows)

The following example adds the currency symbol to the difference values shown in the to_char column:

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select salesid, pricepaid, commission, (pricepaid - commission) as difference, to_char(pricepaid - commission, 'l99999D99') from sales group by sales.pricepaid, sales.commission, salesid order by salesid limit 10; salesid | pricepaid | commission | difference | to_char --------+-----------+------------+------------+------------ 1 | 728.00 | 109.20 | 618.80 | $ 618.80 2 | 76.00 | 11.40 | 64.60 | $ 64.60 3 | 350.00 | 52.50 | 297.50 | $ 297.50 4 | 175.00 | 26.25 | 148.75 | $ 148.75 5 | 154.00 | 23.10 | 130.90 | $ 130.90 6 | 394.00 | 59.10 | 334.90 | $ 334.90 7 | 788.00 | 118.20 | 669.80 | $ 669.80 8 | 197.00 | 29.55 | 167.45 | $ 167.45 9 | 591.00 | 88.65 | 502.35 | $ 502.35 10 | 65.00 | 9.75 | 55.25 | $ 55.25 (10 rows)

The following example lists the century in which each sale was made.

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select salesid, saletime, to_char(saletime, 'cc') from sales order by salesid limit 10; salesid | saletime | to_char ---------+---------------------+--------- 1 | 2008-02-18 02:36:48 | 21 2 | 2008-06-06 05:00:16 | 21 3 | 2008-06-06 08:26:17 | 21 4 | 2008-06-09 08:38:52 | 21 5 | 2008-08-31 09:17:02 | 21 6 | 2008-07-16 11:59:24 | 21 7 | 2008-06-26 12:56:06 | 21 8 | 2008-07-10 02:12:36 | 21 9 | 2008-07-22 02:23:17 | 21 10 | 2008-08-06 02:51:55 | 21 (10 rows)

The following example converts each STARTTIME value in the EVENT table to a string that consists of hours, minutes, seconds, and time zone.

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select to_char(starttime, 'HH12:MI:SS TZ') from event where eventid between 1 and 5 order by eventid; to_char ---------- 02:30:00 UTC 08:00:00 UTC 02:30:00 UTC 02:30:00 UTC 07:00:00 UTC (5 rows) (10 rows)