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Amazon Redshift
Database Developer Guide (API Version 2012-12-01)

Designating Distribution Styles

The considerations and recommendations for designating distribution styles in this section use a star schema as an example. Your database design might be based on a star schema, some variant of a star schema, or an entirely different schema. Amazon Redshift is designed to work effectively with whatever schema design you choose. The principles in this section can be applied to any design schema.

  1. Specify the primary key and foreign keys for all your tables.

    Amazon Redshift does not enforce primary key and foreign key constraints, but the query optimizer uses them when it generates query plans. If you set primary keys and foreign keys, your application must maintain the validity of the keys.

  2. Distribute the fact table and its largest dimension table on their common columns.

    Choose the largest dimension based on the size of data set that participates in the most common join, not just the size of the table. If a table is commonly filtered, using a WHERE clause, only a portion of its rows participate in the join. Such a table has less impact on redistribution than a smaller table that contributes more data. Designate both the dimension table's primary key and the fact table's corresponding foreign key as DISTKEY. If multiple tables use the same distribution key, they will also be collocated with the fact table. Your fact table can have only one distribution key. Any tables that join on another key will not be collocated with the fact table.

  3. Designate distribution keys for the other dimension tables.

    Distribute the tables on their primary keys or their foreign keys, depending on how they most commonly join with other tables.

  4. Evaluate whether to change some of the dimension tables to use ALL distribution.

    If a dimension table cannot be collocated with the fact table or other important joining tables, you can improve query performance significantly by distributing the entire table to all of the nodes. Using ALL distribution multiplies storage space requirements and increases load times and maintenance operations, so you should weigh all factors before choosing ALL distribution. The following section explains how to identify candidates for ALL distribution by evaluating the EXPLAIN plan.

  5. Use EVEN distribution for the remaining tables.

    If a table is largely denormalized and does not participate in joins, or if you don't have a clear choice for another distribution style, use EVEN distribution (the default).

You cannot change the distribution style of a table after it is created. To use a different distribution style, you can recreate the table and populate the new table with a deep copy. For more information, see Performing a Deep Copy.