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Amazon Simple Email Service
Developer Guide (API Version 2010-12-01)

Amazon SNS Notification Contents for Amazon SES

Bounce, complaint, and delivery notifications are published to Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topics in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format. The top-level JSON object contains a notificationType string, a mail object, and either a bounce object, a complaint object, or a delivery object.

See the following sections for descriptions of the different types of objects:

The following are some important notes about the contents of Amazon SNS notifications for Amazon SES:

  • For a given notification type, you might receive one Amazon SNS notification for multiple recipients, or you might receive a single Amazon SNS notification per recipient. Your code should be able to parse the Amazon SNS notification and handle both cases; Amazon SES does not make ordering or batching guarantees for notifications sent through Amazon SNS. However, different Amazon SNS notification types (for example, bounces and complaints) will never be combined into a single notification.

  • You might receive multiple types of Amazon SNS notifications for one recipient. For example, the receiving mail server might accept the email (triggering a delivery notification), but after processing the email, the receiving mail server might determine that the email actually results in a bounce (triggering a bounce notification). However, these will always be separate notifications because they are different notification types.

  • Amazon SES reserves the right to add additional fields to the notifications. As such, applications that parse these notifications must be flexible enough to handle unknown fields.

  • Amazon SES overwrites the headers of the message when it sends the email. You can retrieve the headers of the original message from the headers and commonHeaders fields of the mail object.

Top-Level JSON Object

The top-level JSON object in an Amazon SES notification contains the following fields.

Field Name Description

notificationType

A string that holds the type of notification represented by the JSON object. Possible values are Bounce, Complaint, or Delivery.

mail

A JSON object that contains information about the original mail to which the notification pertains. For more information, see Mail Object.

bounce

This field is present only if the notificationType is Bounce and contains a JSON object that holds information about the bounce. For more information, see Bounce Object.

complaint

This field is present only if the notificationType is Complaint and contains a JSON object that holds information about the complaint. For more information, see Complaint Object.

delivery

This field is present only if the notificationType is Delivery and contains a JSON object that holds information about the delivery. For more information, see Delivery Object.

Mail Object

Each bounce, complaint, or delivery notification contains information about the original email in the mail object. The JSON object that contains information about a mail object has the following fields.

Field Name Description

timestamp

The time at which the original message was sent (in ISO8601 format).

messageId

A unique ID that Amazon SES assigned to the message. Amazon SES returned this value to you when you sent the message.

Note

This message ID was assigned by Amazon SES. You can find the message ID of the original email in the headers and commonHeaders fields of the mail object.

source

The email address from which the original message was sent (the envelope MAIL FROM address).

sourceArn

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the identity that was used to send the email. In the case of sending authorization, the sourceArn is the ARN of the identity that the identity owner authorized the delegate sender to use to send the email. For more information about sending authorization, see Using Sending Authorization.

sourceIp

The originating public IP address of the client that performed the email sending request to Amazon SES.

sendingAccountId

The AWS account ID of the account that was used to send the email. In the case of sending authorization, the sendingAccountId is the delegate sender's account ID.

destination

A list of email addresses that were recipients of the original mail.

headersTruncated

(Only present if the notification settings include the original email headers.) A string that specifies whether the headers are truncated in the notification, which occurs if the headers are larger than 10 KB. Possible values are true and false.

headers

(Only present if the notification settings include the original email headers.) A list of the email's original headers. Each header in the list has a name field and a value field.

Note

Any message ID within the headers field is from the original message that you passed to Amazon SES. The message ID that Amazon SES subsequently assigned to the message is in the messageId field of the mail object.

commonHeaders

(Only present if the notification settings include the original email headers.) A list of the email's original, commonly used headers. Each header in the list has a name field and a value field.

Note

Any message ID within the commonHeaders field is from the original message that you passed to Amazon SES. The message ID that Amazon SES subsequently assigned to the message is in the messageId field of the mail object.

The following is an example of a mail object that includes the original email headers. When this notification type is not configured to include the original email headers, the mail object does not include the headersTruncated, headers, and commonHeaders fields.

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{ "timestamp":"2016-01-27T14:05:45 +0000", "messageId":"000001378603177f-7a5433e7-8edb-42ae-af10-f0181f34d6ee-000000", "source":"john@example.com", "sourceArn": "arn:aws:ses:us-west-2:888888888888:identity/example.com", "sourceIp": "127.0.3.0", "sendingAccountId":"123456789012", "destination":[ "jane@example.com" ], "headersTruncated":false, "headers":[ { "name":"From", "value":"\"John Doe\" <john@example.com>" }, { "name":"To", "value":"\"Jane Doe\" <jane@example.com>" }, { "name":"Message-ID", "value":"custom-message-ID" }, { "name":"Subject", "value":"Hello" }, { "name":"Content-Type", "value":"text/plain; charset=\"UTF-8\"" }, { "name":"Content-Transfer-Encoding", "value":"base64" }, { "name":"Date", "value":"Wed, 27 Jan 2016 14:05:45 +0000" } ], "commonHeaders":{ "from":[ "John Doe <john@example.com>" ], "date":"Wed, 27 Jan 2016 14:05:45 +0000", "to":[ "Jane Doe <jane@example.com>" ], "messageId":" custom-message-ID", "subject":"Hello" } }

Bounce Object

The JSON object that contains information about bounces will always have the following fields.

Field Name Description

bounceType

The type of bounce, as determined by Amazon SES. For more information, see Bounce Types.

bounceSubType

The subtype of the bounce, as determined by Amazon SES. For more information, see Bounce Types.

bouncedRecipients

A list that contains information about the recipients of the original mail that bounced. For more information, see Bounced Recipients.

timestamp

The date and time at which the bounce was sent (in ISO8601 format). Note that this is the time at which the notification was sent by the ISP, and not the time at which it was received by Amazon SES.

feedbackId

A unique ID for the bounce.

If Amazon SES was able to contact the remote Message Transfer Authority (MTA), the following field will also be present.

Field Name Description

remoteMtaIp

The IP address of the MTA to which Amazon SES attempted to deliver the email.

If a delivery status notification (DSN) was attached to the bounce, the following field may also be present.

Field Name Description

reportingMTA

The value of the Reporting-MTA field from the DSN. This is the value of the MTA that attempted to perform the delivery, relay, or gateway operation described in the DSN.

The following is an example of a bounce object.

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{ "bounceType":"Permanent", "bounceSubType": "General", "bouncedRecipients":[ { "status":"5.0.0", "action":"failed", "diagnosticCode":"smtp; 550 user unknown", "emailAddress":"recipient1@example.com" }, { "status":"4.0.0", "action":"delayed", "emailAddress":"recipient2@example.com" } ], "reportingMTA": "example.com", "timestamp":"2012-05-25T14:59:38.605Z", "feedbackId":"000001378603176d-5a4b5ad9-6f30-4198-a8c3-b1eb0c270a1d-000000", "remoteMtaIp":"127.0.2.0" }

Bounced Recipients

A bounce notification may pertain to a single recipient or to multiple recipients. The bouncedRecipients field holds a list of objects—one per recipient to whom the bounce notification pertains—and will always contain the following field.

Field Name Description

emailAddress

The email address of the recipient. If a DSN is available, this is the value of the Final-Recipient field from the DSN.

Optionally, if a DSN is attached to the bounce, the following fields may also be present.

Field Name Description

action

The value of the Action field from the DSN. This indicates the action performed by the Reporting-MTA as a result of its attempt to deliver the message to this recipient.

status

The value of the Status field from the DSN. This is the per-recipient transport-independent status code that indicates the delivery status of the message.

diagnosticCode

The status code issued by the reporting MTA. This is the value of the Diagnostic-Code field from the DSN. This field may be absent in the DSN (and therefore also absent in the JSON).

The following is an example of an object that might be in the bouncedRecipients list.

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{ "emailAddress": "recipient@example.com", "action": "failed", "status": "5.0.0", "diagnosticCode": "X-Postfix; unknown user" }

Bounce Types

The following bounce types are available. We recommend that you remove the email addresses that have returned bounces marked Permanent from your mailing list, as we do not believe that you will be able to successfully send to them in the future. Transient bounces are sent to you when all retry attempts have been exhausted and will no longer be retried. You may be able to successfully resend to an address that initially resulted in a Transient bounce.

Note

Amazon SES only reports hard bounces and soft bounces that will no longer be retried by Amazon SES. In other words, your recipient did not receive your email message, and Amazon SES will not try to resend it.

bounceType bounceSubType Description

Undetermined

Undetermined

Amazon SES was unable to determine a specific bounce reason.

Permanent

General

Amazon SES received a general hard bounce and recommends that you remove the recipient's email address from your mailing list.

Permanent

NoEmail

Amazon SES received a permanent hard bounce because the target email address does not exist. It is recommended that you remove that recipient from your mailing list.

Permanent

Suppressed

Amazon SES has suppressed sending to this address because it has a recent history of bouncing as an invalid address. For information about how to remove an address from the suppression list, see Removing an Email Address from the Amazon SES Suppression List.

Transient

General

Amazon SES received a general bounce. You may be able to successfully retry sending to that recipient in the future.

Transient

MailboxFull

Amazon SES received a mailbox full bounce. You may be able to successfully retry sending to that recipient in the future.

Transient

MessageTooLarge

Amazon SES received a message too large bounce. You may be able to successfully retry sending to that recipient if you reduce the message size.

Transient

ContentRejected

Amazon SES received a content rejected bounce. You may be able to successfully retry sending to that recipient if you change the message content.

Transient

AttachmentRejected

Amazon SES received an attachment rejected bounce. You may be able to successfully retry sending to that recipient if you remove or change the attachment.

Complaint Object

The JSON object that contains information about complaints has the following fields.

Field Name Description

complainedRecipients

A list that contains information about recipients that may have been responsible for the complaint. For more information, see Complained Recipients.

timestamp

The date and time at which the complaint was sent (in ISO8601 format). Note that this is the time at which the notification was sent by the ISP, and not the time at which it was received by Amazon SES.

feedbackId

A unique ID for the complaint.

Further, if a feedback report is attached to the complaint, the following fields may be present.

Field Name Description

userAgent

The value of the User-Agent field from the feedback report. This indicates the name and version of the system that generated the report.

complaintFeedbackType

The value of the Feedback-Type field from the feedback report received from the ISP. This contains the type of feedback.

arrivalDate

The value of the Arrival-Date or Received-Date field from the feedback report (in ISO8601 format). This field may be absent in the report (and therefore also absent in the JSON).

The following is an example of a complaint object.

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{ "userAgent":"AnyCompany Feedback Loop (V0.01)", "complainedRecipients":[ { "emailAddress":"recipient1@example.com" } ], "complaintFeedbackType":"abuse", "arrivalDate":"2009-12-03T04:24:21.000-05:00", "timestamp":"2012-05-25T14:59:38.623Z", "feedbackId":"000001378603177f-18c07c78-fa81-4a58-9dd1-fedc3cb8f49a-000000" }

Complained Recipients

The complainedRecipients field contains a list of recipients that may have submitted the complaint.

Important

Since most ISPs redact the email address of the recipient who submitted the complaint from their complaint notification, this list contains information about recipients who might have sent the complaint, based on the recipients of the original message and the ISP from which we received the complaint. Amazon SES performs a lookup against the original message to determine this recipient list.

JSON objects in this list contain the following field.

Field Name Description

emailAddress

The email address of the recipient.

The following is an example of a Complained Recipient object.

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{ "emailAddress": "recipient1@example.com" }

Note

Because of this behavior, you can be more certain that you know which email address complained about your message if you limit your sending to one message per recipient (rather than sending one message with 30 different email addresses in the bcc line).

Complaint Types

You may see the following complaint types in the complaintFeedbackType field as assigned by the reporting ISP, according to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority website:

  • abuse—Indicates unsolicited email or some other kind of email abuse.

  • auth-failure—Email authentication failure report.

  • fraud—Indicates some kind of fraud or phishing activity.

  • not-spam—Indicates that the entity providing the report does not consider the message to be spam. This may be used to correct a message that was incorrectly tagged or categorized as spam.

  • other—Indicates any other feedback that does not fit into other registered types.

  • virus—Reports that a virus is found in the originating message.

Delivery Object

The JSON object that contains information about deliveries will always have the following fields.

Field Name Description

timestamp

The time Amazon SES delivered the email to the recipient's mail server (in ISO8601 format).

processingTimeMillis

The time in milliseconds between when Amazon SES accepted the request from the sender to passing the message to the recipient's mail server.

recipients

A list of the intended recipients of the email to which the delivery notification applies.

smtpResponse

The SMTP response message of the remote ISP that accepted the email from Amazon SES. This message will vary by email, by receiving mail server, and by receiving ISP.

reportingMTA

The host name of the Amazon SES mail server that sent the mail.

remoteMtaIp

The IP address of the MTA to which Amazon SES delivered the email.

The following is an example of a delivery object.

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{ "timestamp":"2014-05-28T22:41:01.184Z", "processingTimeMillis":546, "recipients":["success@simulator.amazonses.com"], "smtpResponse":"250 ok: Message 64111812 accepted", "reportingMTA":"a8-70.smtp-out.amazonses.com", "remoteMtaIp":"127.0.2.0" }