Initializing Amazon EBS volumes - Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

Initializing Amazon EBS volumes

Empty EBS volumes receive their maximum performance the moment that they are created and do not require initialization (formerly known as pre-warming).

For volumes that were created from snapshots, the storage blocks must be pulled down from Amazon S3 and written to the volume before you can access them. This preliminary action takes time and can cause a significant increase in the latency of I/O operations the first time each block is accessed. Volume performance is achieved after all blocks have been downloaded and written to the volume.

Important

While initializing io1 and io2 volumes that were created from snapshots, the performance of the volume may drop below 50 percent of its expected level, which causes the volume to display a warning state in the I/O Performance status check. This is expected, and you can ignore the warning state on io1 and io2 volumes while you are initializing them. For more information, see EBS volume status checks.

For most applications, amortizing the initialization cost over the lifetime of the volume is acceptable. To avoid this initial performance hit in a production environment, you can use one of the following options:

  • Force the immediate initialization of the entire volume. For more information, see Initializing Amazon EBS volumes on Windows.

  • Enable fast snapshot restore on a snapshot to ensure that the EBS volumes created from it are fully-initialized at creation and instantly deliver all of their provisioned performance. For more information, see Amazon EBS fast snapshot restore.

Initializing Amazon EBS volumes on Windows

New EBS volumes receive their maximum performance the moment that they are available and do not require initialization (formerly known as pre-warming). For volumes that have been created from snapshots, use dd or fio for Windows to read from all of the blocks on a volume. All existing data on the volume will be preserved.

For information about initializing Amazon EBS volumes on Linux, see Initializing Amazon EBS volumes on Linux.

Before using either tool, gather information about the disks on your system as follows:

  1. Use the wmic command to list the available disks on your system:

    wmic diskdrive get size,deviceid

    The following is example output:

    DeviceID Size \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE2 80517265920 \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE1 80517265920 \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE0 128849011200 \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE3 107372805120
  2. Identify the disk to initialize using dd or fio. The C: drive is on \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE0. You can use the diskmgmt.msc utility to compare drive letters to disk drive numbers if you are not sure which drive number to use.

Using dd

Complete the following procedures to install and use dd to initialize a volume.

Note

This step may take several minutes up to several hours, depending on your EC2 instance bandwidth, the IOPS provisioned for the volume, and the size of the volume.

Install dd for Windows

The dd for Windows program provides a similar experience to the dd program that is commonly available for Linux and Unix systems, and it allows you to initialize Amazon EBS volumes that have been created from snapshots. At the time of this writing, the most recent beta version contains the /dev/null virtual device that is required to initialize volumes created from snapshots. Full documentation for the program is available at http://www.chrysocome.net/dd.

  1. Download the most recent binary version of dd for Windows from http://www.chrysocome.net/dd. You must use version 0.6 beta 3 or newer to initialize volumes.

  2. (Optional) Create a folder for command line utilities that is easy to locate and remember, such as C:\bin. If you already have a designated folder for command line utilities, you can use that folder instead in the following step.

  3. Unzip the binary package and copy the dd.exe file to your command line utilities folder (for example, C:\bin).

  4. Add the command line utilities folder to your Path environment variable so you can execute the programs in that folder from anywhere.

    Important

    The following steps don't update the environment variables in your current command prompt windows. The command prompt windows that you open after you complete these steps will contain the updates. This is why it's necessary for you to open a new command prompt window to verify that your environment is set up properly.

    1. Choose Start, open the context (right-click) menu for Computer, and then choose Properties.

    2. Choose Advanced system settings, Environment Variables.

    3. For System Variables, select the variable Path and choose Edit.

    4. For Variable value, append a semicolon and the location of your command line utility folder (;C:\bin\) to the end of the existing value.

    5. Choose OK to close the Edit System Variable window.

To initialize a volume using dd for Windows

  1. Execute the following command to read all blocks on the specified device (and send the output to the /dev/null virtual device). This command safely initializes your existing data.

    Important

    Incorrect use of dd can easily destroy a volume's data. Be sure to follow precisely the example command below. Only the if=\\.\PHYSICALDRIVEn parameter will vary depending on the name of the device you are reading.

    dd if=\\.\PHYSICALDRIVEn of=/dev/null bs=1M --progress --size
    Note

    You may see an error if dd attempts to read beyond the end of the volume. This can be safely ignored.

  2. When the operation completes, you are ready to use your new volume. For more information, see Making an Amazon EBS volume available for use on Windows.

Using fio

Complete the following procedures to install and use fio to initialize a volume.

To install fio for Windows

The fio for Windows program provides a similar experience to the fio program that is commonly available for Linux and Unix systems, and it allows you to initialize Amazon EBS volumes created from snapshots. For more information, see https://github.com/axboe/fio.

  1. Download the fio MSI installer (select the latest x86 or x64 build, then select Artifacts).

  2. Install fio.

To initialize a volume using fio for Windows

  1. Run a command similar to the following to initialize a volume:

    fio --filename=\\.\PHYSICALDRIVEn --rw=read --bs=128k --iodepth=32 --direct=1 --name=volume-initialize
  2. When the operation completes, you are ready to use your new volume. For more information, see Making an Amazon EBS volume available for use on Windows.