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Amazon Relational Database Service
User Guide (API Version 2014-10-31)

Monitoring an Amazon Aurora DB Cluster

Amazon Aurora provides a variety of Amazon CloudWatch metrics that you can monitor to determine the health and performance of your Aurora DB cluster. You can use various tools, such as the Amazon RDS Management Console, AWS CLI, and CloudWatch API, to view Aurora metrics. If your Aurora DB cluster is running a PostgreSQL instance you can use Amazon Performance Insights to get a complete view of your cluster's performance. For more information about Performance Insights, see Using Amazon RDS Performance Insights. For more general information about monitoring, see Monitoring Amazon RDS.

Amazon Aurora Metrics

The following metrics are available from Amazon Aurora.

Amazon Aurora Metrics

The AWS/RDS namespace includes the following metrics that apply to database entities running on Amazon Aurora.

Metric Description Applies to

ActiveTransactions

The average number of current transactions executing on an Aurora database instance per second.

Aurora MySQL

AuroraBinlogReplicaLag

The amount of time a replica DB cluster running on Aurora with MySQL compatibility lags behind the source DB cluster.

This metric reports the value of the Seconds_Behind_Master field of the MySQL SHOW SLAVE STATUS command. This metric is useful for monitoring replica lag between Aurora DB clusters that are replicating across different AWS Regions. For more information, see Aurora MySQL Replication.

Aurora MySQL

AuroraReplicaLag

For an Aurora Replica, the amount of lag when replicating updates from the primary instance, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

AuroraReplicaLagMaximum

The maximum amount of lag between the primary instance and each Aurora DB instance in the DB cluster, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

AuroraReplicaLagMinimum

The minimum amount of lag between the primary instance and each Aurora DB instance in the DB cluster, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

BinLogDiskUsage

The amount of disk space occupied by binary logs on the master, in bytes.

Aurora MySQL

BacktrackChangeRecordsCreationRate

The number of backtrack change records created over five minutes for your DB cluster.

Aurora MySQL

BacktrackChangeRecordsStored

The actual number of backtrack change records used by your DB cluster.

Aurora MySQL

BacktrackWindowActual

The difference between the target backtrack window and the actual backtrack window.

Aurora MySQL

BacktrackWindowAlert

The number of times that the actual backtrack window is smaller than the target backtrack window for a given period of time.

Aurora MySQL

BlockedTransactions

The average number of transactions in the database that are blocked per second.

Aurora MySQL

BufferCacheHitRatio

The percentage of requests that are served by the buffer cache.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

CommitLatency

The amount of latency for commit operations, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

CommitThroughput

The average number of commit operations per second.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

CPUCreditBalance

The number of CPU credits that an instance has accumulated. This metric applies only to db.t2.small and db.t2.medium instances. It is used to determine how long an Aurora MySQL DB instance can burst beyond its baseline performance level at a given rate.

Note

CPU credit metrics are reported at 5-minute intervals.

Aurora MySQL

CPUCreditUsage

The number of CPU credits consumed during the specified period. This metric applies only to db.t2.small and db.t2.medium instances. It identifies the amount of time during which physical CPUs have been used for processing instructions by virtual CPUs allocated to the Aurora MySQL DB instance.

Note

CPU credit metrics are reported at 5-minute intervals.

Aurora MySQL

CPUUtilization

The percentage of CPU used by an Aurora DB instance.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

DatabaseConnections

The number of connections to an Aurora DB instance.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

DDLLatency

The amount of latency for data definition language (DDL) requests, in milliseconds—for example, create, alter, and drop requests.

Aurora MySQL

DDLThroughput

The average number of DDL requests per second.

Aurora MySQL

Deadlocks

The average number of deadlocks in the database per second.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

DeleteLatency

The amount of latency for delete queries, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL

DeleteThroughput

The average number of delete queries per second.

Aurora MySQL

DiskQueueDepth

The number of outstanding read/write requests waiting to access the disk.

Aurora PostgreSQL

DMLLatency

The amount of latency for inserts, updates, and deletes, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL

DMLThroughput

The average number of inserts, updates, and deletes per second.

Aurora MySQL

EngineUptime

The amount of time that the instance has been running, in seconds.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

FreeableMemory

The amount of available random access memory, in bytes.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

FreeLocalStorage

The amount of storage available for temporary tables and logs, in bytes.

Unlike for other DB engines, for Aurora DB instances this metric reports the amount of storage available to each DB instance for temporary tables and logs. This value depends on the DB instance class (for pricing information, see the Amazon RDS product page). You can increase the amount of free storage space for an instance by choosing a larger DB instance class for your instance.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

InsertLatency

The amount of latency for insert queries, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL

InsertThroughput

The average number of insert queries per second.

Aurora MySQL

LoginFailures

The average number of failed login attempts per second.

Aurora MySQL

MaximumUsedTransactionIDs

The age of the oldest unvacuumed transaction ID, in transactions. If this value reaches 2,146,483,648 (2^31 - 1,000,000), the database is forced into read-only mode, to avoid transaction ID wraparound. For more information, see Preventing Transaction ID Wraparound Failures in the PostgreSQL documentation.

Aurora PostgreSQL

NetworkReceiveThroughput

The amount of network throughput received from clients by each instance in the Aurora MySQL DB cluster, in bytes per second. This throughput doesn't include network traffic between instances in the Aurora DB cluster and the cluster volume.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

NetworkThroughput

The amount of network throughput both received from and transmitted to clients by each instance in the Aurora MySQL DB cluster, in bytes per second. This throughput doesn't include network traffic between instances in the DB cluster and the cluster volume.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

NetworkTransmitThroughput

The amount of network throughput sent to clients by each instance in the Aurora DB cluster, in bytes per second. This throughput doesn't include network traffic between instances in the DB cluster and the cluster volume.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

Queries

The average number of queries executed per second.

Aurora MySQL

RDSToAuroraPostgreSQLReplicaLag

The amount of lag in seconds when replicating updates from the primary RDS PostgreSQL instance to other nodes in the cluster.

Aurora PostgreSQL

ReadIOPS

The average number of disk I/O operations per second.

Aurora with PostgreSQL compatibility reports read and write IOPS separately, in 1-minute intervals.

Aurora PostgreSQL

ReadLatency

The average amount of time taken per disk I/O operation.

Aurora PostgreSQL

ReadThroughput

The average number of bytes read from disk per second.

Aurora PostgreSQL

ResultSetCacheHitRatio

The percentage of requests that are served by the Resultset cache.

Aurora MySQL

SelectLatency

The amount of latency for select queries, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL

SelectThroughput

The average number of select queries per second.

Aurora MySQL

SwapUsage

The amount of swap space used on the Aurora PostgreSQL DB instance.

Aurora PostgreSQL

TransactionLogsDiskUsage

The amount of disk space occupied by transaction logs on the Aurora PostgreSQL DB instance.

Aurora PostgreSQL

UpdateLatency

The amount of latency for update queries, in milliseconds.

Aurora MySQL

UpdateThroughput

The average number of update queries per second.

Aurora MySQL

VolumeBytesUsed

The amount of storage used by your Aurora DB instance, in bytes.

This value affects the cost of the Aurora DB cluster (for pricing information, see the Amazon RDS product page).

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

VolumeReadIOPs

The average number of billed read I/O operations from a cluster volume, reported at 5-minute intervals.

Billed read operations are calculated at the cluster volume level, aggregated from all instances in the Aurora DB cluster, and then reported at 5-minute intervals. The value is calculated by taking the value of the Read operations metric over a 5-minute period. You can determine the amount of billed read operations per second by taking the value of the Billed read operations metric and dividing by 300 seconds. For example, if the Billed read operations returns 13,686, then the billed read operations per second is 45 (13,686 / 300 = 45.62).

You accrue billed read operations for queries that request database pages that aren't in the buffer cache and therefore must be loaded from storage. You might see spikes in billed read operations as query results are read from storage and then loaded into the buffer cache.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

VolumeWriteIOPs

The average number of write disk I/O operations to the cluster volume, reported at 5-minute intervals. See the description of VolumeReadIOPS above for a detailed description of how billed write operations are calculated.

Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL

WriteIOPS

The average number of disk I/O operations per second.

Aurora PostgreSQL reports read and write IOPS separately, on 1-minute intervals.

Aurora PostgreSQL

WriteLatency

The average amount of time taken per disk I/O operation.

Aurora PostgreSQL

WriteThroughput

The average number of bytes written to disk per second.

Aurora PostgreSQL

Viewing Aurora Metrics in the Amazon RDS Console

To monitor the health and performance of your Aurora DB cluster, you can view some, but not all, of the metrics provided by Amazon Aurora in the Amazon RDS console. For a detailed list of Aurora metrics available to the Amazon RDS console, see Aurora Metrics Available in the Amazon RDS Console.

To view Aurora metrics in the Amazon RDS console

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Instances.

  3. In the navigation pane, choose Instances, and then select the DB instance that you want to monitor.

  4. Choose Instance actions, and then choose See details.

  5. In the Cloudwatch section, choose one of the following options from Monitoring for how you want to view your metrics:

    • Cloudwatch – Shows a summary of CloudWatch metrics. Each metric includes a graph showing the metric monitored over a specific time span. For more information, see Monitoring Amazon RDS.

    • Enhanced monitoring – Shows a summary of OS metrics available to an Aurora DB instance with Enhanced Monitoring enabled. Each metric includes a graph showing the metric monitored over a specific time span. For more information, see Enhanced Monitoring.

    • OS process list – Shows the processes running on the DB instance or DB cluster and their related metrics including CPU percentage, memory usage, and so on.

    
                        RDS metrics viewing options
  6. The following image shows the metrics view with Enhanced monitoring selected.

    
                        Latest Metrics View

Aurora Metrics Available in the Amazon RDS Console

Not all of the metrics provided by Amazon Aurora are available to you in the Amazon RDS console. You can view them using other tools, however, such as the AWS CLI and CloudWatch API. In addition, some of the metrics that are available in the Amazon RDS console are either shown only for specific instance classes, or with different names and different units of measurement.

The following Aurora metrics are not available in the Amazon RDS console:

  • AuroraBinlogReplicaLag

  • DeleteLatency

  • DeleteThroughput

  • EngineUptime

  • InsertLatency

  • InsertThroughput

  • NetworkThroughput

  • Queries

  • UpdateLatency

  • UpdateThroughput

In addition, some Aurora metrics are either shown only for specific instance classes, or only for DB instances, or with different names and different units of measurement:

  • The CPUCreditBalance and CPUCreditUsage metrics are displayed only for db.t2.small and db.t2.medium instances

  • The following metrics that are displayed with different names, as listed:

    Metric Display Name
    AuroraReplicaLagMaximum

    Replica lag maximum

    AuroraReplicaLagMinimum

    Replica lag minimum

    DDLThroughput

    DDL

    NetworkReceiveThroughput

    Network throughput

    VolumeBytesUsed

    [Billed] Volume bytes used

    VolumeReadIOPs

    [Billed] Volume read IOPs

    VolumeWriteIOPs

    [Billed] Volume write IOPs

  • The following metrics apply to an entire Aurora DB cluster, but are displayed only when viewing DB instances for an Aurora DB cluster in the Amazon RDS console:

    • VolumeBytesUsed

    • VolumeReadIOPs

    • VolumeWriteIOPs

  • The following metrics are displayed in megabytes, instead of bytes, in the Amazon RDS console:

    • FreeableMemory

    • FreeLocalStorage

    • NetworkReceiveThroughput

    • NetworkTransmitThroughput

Latest Metrics View

You can view a subset of categorized Aurora metrics in the Latest Metrics view of the Amazon RDS console. The following table lists the categories and associated metrics displayed in the Amazon RDS console for an Aurora instance.

Category Metrics
SQL

ActiveTransactions

BlockedTransactions

BufferCacheHitRatio

CommitLatency

CommitThroughput

DatabaseConnections

DDLLatency

DDLThroughput

Deadlocks

DMLLatency

DMLThroughput

LoginFailures

ResultSetCacheHitRatio

SelectLatency

SelectThroughput

System

AuroraReplicaLag

AuroraReplicaLagMaximum

AuroraReplicaLagMinimum

CPUCreditBalance

CPUCreditUsage

CPUUtilization

FreeableMemory

FreeLocalStorage

NetworkReceiveThroughput

Deployment

AuroraReplicaLag

BufferCacheHitRatio

ResultSetCacheHitRatio

SelectThroughput

Note

The Failed SQL Statements metric, displayed under the SQL category of the Latest Metrics view in the Amazon RDS console, does not apply to Amazon Aurora.

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