Amazon Simple Storage Service
Developer Guide (API Version 2006-03-01)

Using Amazon S3 Access Logs to Identify Requests

You can identify Amazon S3 requests using Amazon S3 access logs.

Note

  • We recommend that you use AWS CloudTrail data events instead of Amazon S3 access logs. CloudTrail data events are easier to set up and contain more information. For more information, see Using AWS CloudTrail to Identify Amazon S3 Requests.

  • Depending on how many access requests you get, it may require more resources and/or more time to analyze your logs.

Enabling Amazon S3 Access Logs for Requests

We recommend that you create a dedicated logging bucket in each AWS Region that you have S3 buckets in. Then have the Amazon S3 access log delivered to that S3 bucket.

Example — Enable access logs with five buckets across two Regions

In this example, you have the following five buckets:

  • 1-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1

  • 2-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1

  • 3-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1

  • 1-awsexamplebucket-us-west-2

  • 2-awsexamplebucket-us-west-2

  1. Create two logging buckets in the following Regions:

    • awsexamplebucket-logs-us-east-1

    • awsexamplebucket-logs-us-west-2

  2. Then enable the Amazon S3 access logs as follows:

    • 1-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1 logs to s3://awsexamplebucket-logs-us-east-1/1-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1

    • 2-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1 logs to s3://awsexamplebucket-logs-us-east-1/2-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1

    • 1-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1 logs to s3://awsexamplebucket-logs-us-east-1/3-awsexamplebucket-us-east-1

    • 1-awsexamplebucket-us-west-2 logs to s3://awsexamplebucket-logs-us-west-2/1-awsexamplebucket-us-west-2

    • 2-awsexamplebucket-us-west-2 logs to s3://awsexamplebucket-logs-us-west-2/2-awsexamplebucket-us-west-2

  3. You can then enable the Amazon S3 access logs using the following methods:

    • Using the AWS Management Console or,

    • Enabling Logging Programmatically or,

    • Using the AWS CLI put-bucket-logging command to programmatically enable access logs on a bucket using the following commands:

      1. First, grant Amazon S3 permission using put-bucket-acl:

        aws s3api put-bucket-acl --bucket awsexamplebucket-logs --grant-write URI=http://acs.amazonaws.com/groups/s3/LogDelivery --grant-read-acp URI=http://acs.amazonaws.com/groups/s3/LogDelivery
      2. Then, apply the logging policy:

        aws s3api put-bucket-logging --bucket awsexamplebucket --bucket-logging-status file://logging.json

        Logging.json is a JSON document in the current folder that contains the logging policy:

        { "LoggingEnabled": { "TargetBucket": "awsexamplebucket-logs", "TargetPrefix": "awsexamplebucket/", "TargetGrants": [ { "Grantee": { "Type": "AmazonCustomerByEmail", "EmailAddress": "user@example.com" }, "Permission": "FULL_CONTROL" } ] } }

        Note

        The put-bucket-acl command is required to grant the Amazon S3 log delivery system the necessary permissions (write and read-acp permissions).

      3. Use a bash script to add access logging for all the buckets in your account:

        loggingBucket='awsexamplebucket-logs' region='us-west-2' # Create Logging bucket aws s3 mb s3://$loggingBucket --region $region aws s3api put-bucket-acl --bucket $loggingBucket --grant-write URI=http://acs.amazonaws.com/groups/s3/LogDelivery --grant-read-acp URI=http://acs.amazonaws.com/groups/s3/LogDelivery # List buckets in this account buckets="$(aws s3 ls | awk '{print $3}')" # Put bucket logging on each bucket for bucket in $bucenable-logging-programmingkets do printf '{ "LoggingEnabled": { "TargetBucket": "%s", "TargetPrefix": "%s/" } }' "$loggingBucket" "$bucket" > logging.json aws s3api put-bucket-logging --bucket $bucket --bucket-logging-status file://logging.json echo "$bucket done" done rm logging.json echo "Complete"

        Note

        This only works if all your buckets are in the same Region. If you have buckets in multiple Regions, you must adjust the script.

Querying Amazon S3 Access Logs for Requests

Amazon S3 stores server access logs as objects in an S3 bucket. It is often easier to use a tool that can analyze the logs in Amazon S3. Athena supports analysis of S3 objects and can be used to query Amazon S3 access logs.

Example

The following example shows how you can query Amazon S3 server access logs in Amazon Athena.

Note

To specify the Amazon S3 location in an Athena query, you need the target bucket name and the target prefix, as follows: s3://awsexamplebucket-logs/prefix/

  1. Open the Athena console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/athena/.

  2. In the Query Editor, run a command similar to the following:

    create database s3_access_logs_db

    Note

    It's a best practice to create the database in the same AWS Region as your S3 bucket.

  3. In the Query Editor, run a command similar to the following to create a table schema in the database that you created in step 2. The STRING and BIGINT data type values are the access log properties. You can query these properties in Athena. For LOCATION, enter the S3 bucket and prefix path as noted earlier.

    CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE IF NOT EXISTS s3_access_logs_db.mybucket_logs( BucketOwner STRING, Bucket STRING, RequestDateTime STRING, RemoteIP STRING, Requester STRING, RequestID STRING, Operation STRING, Key STRING, RequestURI_operation STRING, RequestURI_key STRING, RequestURI_httpProtoversion STRING, HTTPstatus STRING, ErrorCode STRING, BytesSent BIGINT, ObjectSize BIGINT, TotalTime STRING, TurnAroundTime STRING, Referrer STRING, UserAgent STRING, VersionId STRING, HostId STRING, SigV STRING, CipherSuite STRING, AuthType STRING, HostHeader STRING ) ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.RegexSerDe' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( 'serialization.format' = '1', 'input.regex' = '([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) \\[(.*?)\\] ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) \\\"([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) (- |[^ ]*)\\\" (-|[0-9]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) (\"[^\"]*\") ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*).*$' ) LOCATION 's3://awsexamplebucket-logs/prefix'
  4. In the navigation pane, under Database, choose your database.

  5. Under Tables, choose Preview table next to your table name.

    In the Results pane, you should see data from the server access logs, such as bucketowner, bucket, requestdatetime, and so on. This means that you successfully created the Athena table. You can now query the Amazon S3 server access logs.

Example — Show who deleted an object and when (timestamp, IP address, and IAM user)

SELECT RequestDateTime, RemoteIP, Requester, Key FROM s3_access_logs_db.mybucket_logs WHERE key = 'images/picture.jpg' AND operation like '%DELETE%';

Example — Show all operations executed by an IAM user

SELECT * FROM s3_access_logs_db.mybucket_logs WHERE requester='arn:aws:iam::123456789123:user/user_name';

Example — Show all operations that were performed on an object in a specific time period

SELECT * FROM s3_access_logs_db.mybucket_logs WHERE Key='prefix/images/picture.jpg' AND parse_datetime(RequestDateTime,'dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z') BETWEEN parse_datetime('2017-02-18:07:00:00','yyyy-MM-dd:HH:mm:ss') AND parse_datetime('2017-02-18:08:00:00','yyyy-MM-dd:HH:mm:ss');

Example — Show how much data was transferred by a specific IP address in a specific time period

SELECT SUM(bytessent) AS uploadTotal, SUM(objectsize) AS downloadTotal, SUM(bytessent + objectsize) AS Total FROM s3_access_logs_db.mybucket_logs WHERE RemoteIP='1.2.3.4' AND parse_datetime(RequestDateTime,'dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z') BETWEEN parse_datetime('2017-06-01','yyyy-MM-dd') AND parse_datetime('2017-07-01','yyyy-MM-dd');

Note

To reduce the time that you retain your log, you can create an Amazon S3 lifecycle policy for your server access logs bucket. Configure the lifecycle policy to remove log files periodically. Doing so reduces the amount of data that Athena analyzes for each query.

Using Amazon S3 Access Logs to Identify Signature Version 2 Requests

Amazon S3 support for Signature Version 2 will be turned off (deprecated). After that, Amazon S3 will no longer accept requests that use Signature Version 2, and all requests must use Signature Version 4 signing. You can identify Signature Version 2 access requests using Amazon S3 access logs.

Note

Example — Show all requesters that are sending Signature Version 2 traffic

SELECT requester, Sigv, Count(Sigv) as SigCount FROM s3_access_logs_db.mybucket_logs GROUP BY requester, Sigv;

Using Amazon S3 Access Logs to Identify Object Access Requests

You can use queries on Amazon S3 server access logs to identify Amazon S3 object access requests, for operations such as GET, PUT, and DELETE, and discover further information about those requests.

The following Amazon Athena query example shows how to get all PUT object requests for Amazon S3 from the server access log.

Example — Show all requesters that are sending PUT object requests in a certain period

SELECT Bucket, Requester, RemoteIP, Key, HTTPStatus, ErrorCode, RequestDateTime FROM s3_access_logs_db WHERE Operation='REST.PUT.OBJECT' AND parse_datetime(RequestDateTime,'dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z') BETWEEN parse_datetime('2019-07-01:00:42:42','yyyy-MM-dd:HH:mm:ss') AND parse_datetime('2019-07-02:00:42:42','yyyy-MM-dd:HH:mm:ss')

The following Amazon Athena query example shows how to get all GET object requests for Amazon S3 from the server access log.

Example — Show all requesters that are sending GET object requests in a certain period

SELECT Bucket, Requester, RemoteIP, Key, HTTPStatus, ErrorCode, RequestDateTime FROM s3_access_logs_db WHERE Operation='REST.GET.OBJECT' AND parse_datetime(RequestDateTime,'dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z') BETWEEN parse_datetime('2019-07-01:00:42:42','yyyy-MM-dd:HH:mm:ss') AND parse_datetime('2019-07-02:00:42:42','yyyy-MM-dd:HH:mm:ss')

The following Amazon Athena query example shows how to get all annonymous requests to your S3 buckets from the server access log.

Example — Show all anonymous requesters that are making requests to a bucket in a certain period

SELECT Bucket, Requester, RemoteIP, Key, HTTPStatus, ErrorCode, RequestDateTime FROM s3_access_logs_db.mybucket_logs WHERE Requester IS NULL AND parse_datetime(RequestDateTime,'dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z') BETWEEN parse_datetime('2019-07-01:00:42:42','yyyy-MM-dd:HH:mm:ss') AND parse_datetime('2019-07-02:00:42:42','yyyy-MM-dd:HH:mm:ss')

Note

  • You can modify the date range as needed to suit your needs.

  • These query examples may also be useful for security monitoring. You can review the results for PutObject or GetObject calls from unexpected or unauthorized IP addresses/requesters and for identifying any anonymous requests to your buckets.

  • This query only retrieves information from the time at which logging was enabled.

  • If you are using Amazon S3 AWS CloudTrail logs, see Using AWS CloudTrail to Identify Access to Amazon S3 Objects.

Related Resources