Conditional Functions - Amazon Simple Storage Service

Conditional Functions

Amazon S3 Select and S3 Glacier Select support the following conditional functions.

CASE

The CASE expression is a conditional expression, similar to if/then/else statements found in other languages. CASE is used to specify a result when there are multiple conditions. There are two types of CASE expressions: simple and searched.

In simple CASE expressions, an expression is compared with a value. When a match is found, the specified action in the THEN clause is applied. If no match is found, the action in the ELSE clause is applied.

In searched CASE expressions, each CASE is evaluated based on a Boolean expression, and the CASE statement returns the first matching CASE. If no matching CASEs are found among the WHEN clauses, the action in the ELSE clause is returned.

Syntax

Simple CASE statement used to match conditions:

CASE expression WHEN value THEN result [WHEN...] [ELSE result] END

Searched CASE statement used to evaluate each condition:

CASE WHEN boolean condition THEN result [WHEN ...] [ELSE result] END

Examples

Use a simple CASE expression is used to replace New York City with Big Apple in a query. Replace all other city names with other.

select venuecity, case venuecity when 'New York City' then 'Big Apple' else 'other' end from venue order by venueid desc; venuecity | case -----------------+----------- Los Angeles | other New York City | Big Apple San Francisco | other Baltimore | other ... (202 rows)

Use a searched CASE expression to assign group numbers based on the PRICEPAID value for individual ticket sales:

select pricepaid, case when pricepaid <10000 then 'group 1' when pricepaid >10000 then 'group 2' else 'group 3' end from sales order by 1 desc; pricepaid | case -----------+--------- 12624.00 | group 2 10000.00 | group 3 10000.00 | group 3 9996.00 | group 1 9988.00 | group 1 ... (172456 rows)

COALESCE

Evaluates the arguments in order and returns the first non-unknown, that is, the first non-null or non-missing. This function does not propagate null and missing.

Syntax

COALESCE ( expression, expression, ... )

Parameters

expression

The target expression that the function operates on.

Examples

COALESCE(1) -- 1 COALESCE(null) -- null COALESCE(null, null) -- null COALESCE(missing) -- null COALESCE(missing, missing) -- null COALESCE(1, null) -- 1 COALESCE(null, null, 1) -- 1 COALESCE(null, 'string') -- 'string' COALESCE(missing, 1) -- 1

NULLIF

Given two expressions, returns NULL if the two expressions evaluate to the same value; otherwise, returns the result of evaluating the first expression.

Syntax

NULLIF ( expression1, expression2 )

Parameters

expression1, expression2

The target expressions that the function operates on.

Examples

NULLIF(1, 1) -- null NULLIF(1, 2) -- 1 NULLIF(1.0, 1) -- null NULLIF(1, '1') -- 1 NULLIF([1], [1]) -- null NULLIF(1, NULL) -- 1 NULLIF(NULL, 1) -- null NULLIF(null, null) -- null NULLIF(missing, null) -- null NULLIF(missing, missing) -- null