Amplify Hosting Deployment specification - AWS Amplify Hosting

Amplify Hosting Deployment specification

The Amplify Hosting deployment specification is a file system based specification that defines the directory structure that facilitates deployments to Amplify Hosting. A framework can generate this expected directory structure as the output of its build command, enabling the framework to take advantage of Amplify Hosting’s service primitive types. Amplify Hosting understands the structure of the deployment bundle and deploys it accordingly.

The following is an example of the folder structure that Amplify expects for the deployment bundle. At a high level, it has a folder named static, a folder named compute and a deployment manifest file named deploy-manifest.json.

.amplify-hosting/ ├── compute/ │ └── default/ │ ├── chunks/ │ │ └── app/ │ │ ├── _nuxt/ │ │ │ ├── index-xxx.mjs │ │ │ └── index-styles.xxx.js │ │ └── server.mjs │ ├── node_modules/ │ └── server.js ├── static/ │ ├── css/ │ │ └── nuxt-google-fonts.css │ ├── fonts/ │ │ ├── font.woff2 │ ├── _nuxt/ │ │ ├── builds/ │ │ │ └── latest.json │ │ └── entry.xxx.js │ ├── favicon.ico │ └── robots.txt └── deploy-manifest.json

Amplify SSR primitive type support

The Amplify Hosting deployment specification defines a contract that closely maps to the following primitive types.

Static assets

Provides frameworks with the ability to host static files.

Compute

Provides frameworks with the ability to run a Node.js HTTP server on port 3000.

Image optimization

Provides frameworks with a service to optimize images at runtime.

Routing rules

Provides frameworks with a mechanism to map incoming request paths to specific targets.

The .amplify-hosting/static directory

You must place all publicly accessible static files that are meant to be served from the application URL in the .amplify-hosting/static directory. The files inside this directory are served via the static assets primitive type.

Static files are accessible at the root (/) of the application URL without any changes to their content, file name, or extension. Additionally, subdirectories are preserved in the URL structure and appear before the file name. As an example, .amplify-hosting/static/favicon.ico will be served from https://myAppId.amplify-hostingapp.com/favicon.ico and .amplify-hosting/static/_nuxt/main.js will be served from https://myAppId.amplify-hostingapp.com/_nuxt/main.js

If a framework supports the ability to modify the base path of the application, it must prepend the base path to the static assets inside the .amplify-hosting/static directory. For example, if the base path is /folder1/folder2, then the build output for a static asset called main.css will be .amplify-hosting/static/folder1/folder2/main.css.

The .amplify-hosting/compute directory

A single compute resource is represented by a single subdirectory named default contained within the .amplify-hosting/compute directory. The path is .amplify-hosting/compute/default. This compute resource maps to Amplify Hosting's compute primitive type.

The contents of the default subdirectory must conform to the following rules.

  • A file must exist in the root of the default subdirectory, to serve as the entry point to the compute resource.

  • The entry point file must be a Node.js module and it must start an HTTP server that listens on port 3000.

  • You can place other files in the default subdirectory and reference them from code in the entry point file.

  • The contents of the subdirectory must be self-contained. Code in the entry point module can't reference any modules outside of the subdirectory. Note that frameworks can bundle their HTTP server in any way that they want. If the compute process can be initiated with the node server.js command, where server.js is is the name of the entry file, from within the subdirectory, Amplify considers the directory structure to conform to the deployment specification.

Amplify Hosting bundles and deploys all files inside the default subdirectory to a provisioned compute resource. Each compute resource is allocated 512 MB of ephemeral storage. This storage isn't shared between execution instances, but is shared among subsequent invocations within the same execution instance. Execution instances are limited to a maximum execution time of 15 minutes, and the only writable path within the execution instance is the /tmp directory. The compressed size of each compute resource bundle can't exceed 220 MB. For example, the .amplify/compute/default subdirectory can't exceed 220 MB when compressed.

The .amplify-hosting/deploy-manifest.json file

Use the deploy-manifest.json file to store the configuration details and metadata for a deployment. At a minimum, a deploy-manifest.json file must include a version attribute, the routes attribute with a catch-all route specified, and the framework attribute with framework metadata specified.

The following object definition demonstrates the configuration for a deployment manifest.

type DeployManifest = { version: 1; routes: Route[]; computeResources?: ComputeResource[]; imageSettings?: ImageSettings; framework: FrameworkMetadata; };

The following topics describe the details and usage for each attribute in the deployment manifest.

Using the version attribute

The version attribute defines the version of the deployment specification that you are implementing. Currently, the only version for the Amplify Hosting deployment specification is version 1. The following JSON example demonstrates the usage for the version attribute.

"version": 1

Using the routes attribute

The routes attribute enables frameworks to leverage the Amplify Hosting routing rules primitive type. Routing rules provide a mechanism for routing incoming request paths to a specific target in the deployment bundle. Routing rules only dictate the destination of an incoming request and are applied after the request has been transformed by rewrite and redirect rules. For more information about how Amplify Hosting handles rewrites and redirects, see Using redirects.

Routing rules don't rewrite or transform the request. If an incoming request matches the path pattern for a route, the request is routed as-is to the route's target.

The routing rules specified in the routes array must conform to the following rules.

  • A catch-all route must be specified. A catch-all route has the /* pattern that matches all incoming requests.

  • The routes array can contain a maximum of 25 items.

  • You must specify either a Static route or a Compute route.

  • If you specify a Static route, the .amplify-hosting/static directory must exist.

  • If you specify a Compute route, the .amplify-hosting/compute directory must exist.

  • If you specify an ImageOptimization route, you must also specify a Compute route. This is required because image optimization is not yet supported for purely static applications.

The following object definition demonstrates the configuration for the Route object.

type Route = { path: string; target: Target; fallback?: Target; }

The following table describes the Route object's properties.

Key Type Required Description

path

String

Yes

Defines a pattern that matches incoming request paths (excluding querystring).

The maximum path length is 255 characters.

A path must start with the forward slash /.

A path can contain any of the following characters: [A-Z], [a-z], [0-9],[ _-.*$/~"'@:+].

For pattern matching, only the following wildcard characters are supported:

  • * (matches 0 or more characters)

  • The /* pattern is called a catch-all pattern and will match all incoming requests.

target

Target

Yes

An object that defines the target to route the matched request to.

If a Compute route is specified, a corresponding ComputeResource must exist.

If an ImageOptimization route is specified, imageSettings must also be specified.

fallback

Target

No

An object that defines the target to fallback to if the original target returns a 404 error.

The target kind and the fallback kind can't be the same for a specified route. For example, fallback from Static to Static is not allowed. Fallbacks are only supported for GET requests that don't have a body. If a body is present in the request, it will be dropped during the fallback.

The following object definition demonstrates the configuration for the Target object.

type Target = { kind: TargetKind; src?: string; cacheControl?: string; }

The following table describes the Target object's properties.

Key Type Required Description

kind

Targetkind

Yes

An enum that defines the target type. Valid values are Static, Compute, and ImageOptimization.

src

String

Yes for Compute

No for other primitive types

A string that specifies the name of the subdirectory in the deployment bundle that contains the primitive type's executable code. Valid and required only for the Compute primitive type.

The value must point to one of the compute resources present in the deployment bundle. Currently, the only supported value for this field is default.

cacheControl

String

No

A string that specifies the value of the Cache-Control header to apply to the response. Valid only for the Static and the ImageOptimization primitive types.

The specified value is overriden by custom headers. For more information about Amplify Hosting customer headers, see Custom headers.

Note

This Cache-Control header is only applied to successful responses with a status code set to 200 (OK).

The following object definition demonstrates the usage for the TargetKind enumeration.

enum TargetKind { Static = "Static", Compute = "Compute", ImageOptimization = "ImageOptimization" }

The following list specifies the valid values for the TargetKind enum.

Static

Routes requests to the static assets primitive type.

Compute

Routes requests to the compute primitive type.

ImageOptimization

Routes requests to the image optimization primitive type.

The following JSON example demonstrates the usage for the routes attribute with multiple routing rules specified.

"routes": [ { "path": "/_nuxt/image", "target": { "kind": "ImageOptimization", "cacheControl": "public, max-age=3600, immutable" } }, { "path": "/_nuxt/builds/meta/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=31536000, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/_nuxt/builds/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=1, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/_nuxt/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=31536000, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/*.*", "target": { "kind": "Static" }, "fallback": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } }, { "path": "/*", "target": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } } ]

For more information about specifying routing rules in your deployment manifest, see Best practices for configuring routing rules

Using the computeResources attribute

The computeResources attribute enables frameworks to provide metadata about the provisioned compute resources. Every compute resource must have a corresponding route associated with it.

The following object definition demonstrates the usage for the ComputeResource object.

type ComputeResource = { name: string; runtime: ComputeRuntime; entrypoint: string; }; type ComputeRuntime = 'nodejs16.x' | 'nodejs18.x' | 'nodejs20.x';

The following table describes the ComputeResource object's properties.

Key Type Required Description

name

String

Yes

Specifies the name of the compute resource. The name must match the name of the subdirectory inside the .amplify-hosting/compute directory.

For version 1 of the deployment specification, the only valid value is default.

runtime

ComputeRuntime

Yes

Defines the runtime for the provisioned compute resource.

Valid values are nodejs16.x, nodejs18.x, and nodejs20.x.

entrypoint

String

Yes

Specifies the name of the starting file that code will run from for the specified compute resource. The file must exist inside the subdirectory that represents a compute resource.

If you have a directory structure that looks like the following.

.amplify-hosting |---compute | |---default | |---index.js

The JSON for the computeResource attribute will look like the following.

"computeResources": [ { "name": "default", "runtime": "nodejs16.x", "entrypoint": "index.js", } ]

Using the imageSettings attribute

The imageSettings attribute enables frameworks to customize the behavior of the image optimization primitive type, that provides on-demand optimization of images at runtime.

The following object definition demonstrates the usage for the ImageSettings object.

type ImageSettings = { sizes: number[]; domains: string[]; remotePatterns: RemotePattern[]; formats: ImageFormat[]; minumumCacheTTL: number; dangerouslyAllowSVG: boolean; }; type ImageFormat = 'image/avif' | 'image/webp' | 'image/png' | 'image/jpeg';

The following table describes the ImageSettings object's properties.

Key Type Required Description

sizes

Number[]

Yes

An array of supported image widths.

domains

String[]

Yes

An array of allowed external domains that can use image optimization. Leave the array empty to allow only the deployment domain to use image optimization.

remotePatterns

RemotePattern[]

Yes

An array of allowed external patterns that can use image optimization. Similar to domains, but provides more control with regular expressions (regex).

formats

ImageFormat[]

Yes

An array of allowed output image formats.

minimumCacheTTL

Number

Yes

The cache duration in seconds for the optimized images.

dangerouslyAllowSVG

Boolean

Yes

Allows SVG input image URLs. This is disabled by default for security purposes.

The following object definition demonstrates the usage for the RemotePattern object.

type RemotePattern = { protocol?: 'http' | 'https'; hostname: string; port?: string; pathname?: string; }

The following table describes the RemotePattern object's properties.

Key Type Required Description

protocol

String

No

The protocol of the allowed remote pattern.

Valid values are http or https.

hostname

String

Yes

The hostname of the allowed remote pattern.

You can specify a literal or wildcard. A single `*` matches a single subdomain. A double `**` matches any number of subdomains. Amplify doesn't allow blanket wildcards where only `**` is specified.

port

String

No

The port of the allowed remote pattern.

pathname

String

No

The path name of the allowed remote pattern.

The following example demonstrates the imageSettings attribute.

"imageSettings": { "sizes": [ 100, 200 ], "domains": [ "example.com" ], "remotePatterns": [ { "protocol": "https", "hostname": "example.com", "port": "", "pathname": "/**", } ], "formats": [ "image/webp" ], "minumumCacheTTL": 60, "dangerouslyAllowSVG": false }

Using the framework attribute

Use the framework attribute to specify framework metadata.

The following object definition demonstrates the configuration for the FrameworkMetadata object.

type FrameworkMetadata = { name: string; version: string; }

The following table describes the FrameworkMetadata object's properties.

Key Type Required Description

name

String

Yes

The name of the framework.

version

String

Yes

The version of the framework.

It must be a valid semantic versioning (semver) string.

Best practices for configuring routing rules

Routing rules provide a mechanism for routing incoming request paths to specific targets in the deployment bundle. In a deployment bundle, framework authors can emit files to the build output that are deployed to either of the following targets:

  • Static assets primitive type – Files are contained in the .amplify-hosting/static directory.

  • Compute primitive type – Files are contained in the .amplify-hosting/compute/default directory.

Framework authors also provide an array of routing rules in the deploy manifest file. Each rule in the array is matched against the incoming request in sequential traversal order, until there’s a match. When there’s a matching rule, the request is routed to the target specified in the matching rule. Optionally, a fallback target can be specified for each rule. If the original target returns a 404 error, the request is routed to the fallback target.

The deployment specification requires the last rule in the traversal order to be a catch-all rule. A catch-all rule is specified with the /* path. If the incoming request doesn't match with any of the previous routes in the routing rules array, the request is routed to the catch-all rule target.

For SSR frameworks like Nuxt.js, the catch-all rule target has to be the compute primitive type. This is because SSR applications have server-side rendered pages with routes that aren't predictable at build time. For example, if a Nuxt.js application has a page at /blog/[slug] where [slug] is a dynamic route parameter. The catch-all rule target is the only way to route requests to these pages.

In contrast, specific path patterns can be used to target routes that are known at build time. For example, Nuxt.js serves static assets from the /_nuxt path. This means that the /_nuxt/* path can be targeted by a specific routing rule that routes requests to the static assets primitive type.

Public folder routing

Most SSR frameworks provide the ability to serve mutable static assets from a public folder. Files like favicon.ico and robots.txt are typically kept inside the public folder and are served from the application's root URL. For example, the favicon.ico file is served from https://example.com/favicon.ico. Note that there is no predictable path pattern for these files. They are almost entirely dictated by the file name. The only way to target files inside the public folder is to use the catch-all route. However, the catch-all route target has to be the compute primitive type.

We recommend one of the following approaches for managing your public folder.

  1. Use a path pattern to target request paths that contain file extensions. For example, you can use /*.* to target all request paths that contain a file extension.

    Note that this approach can be unreliable. For example, if there are files without file extensions inside the public folder, they are not targeted by this rule. Another issue to be aware of with this approach is that the application could have pages with periods in their names. For example, a page at /blog/2021/01/01/hello.world will be targeted by the /*.* rule. This is not ideal since the page is not a static asset. However, you can add a fallback target to this rule to ensure that when there is a 404 error from the static primitive type, the request falls back to the compute primitive type.

    { "path": "/*.*", "target": { "kind": "Static" }, "fallback": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } }
  2. Identify the files in the public folder at build time and emit a routing rule for each file. This approach is not scalable since there is a limit of 25 rules imposed by the deployment specification.

    { "path": "/favicon.ico", "target": { "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/robots.txt", "target": { "kind": "Static" } }
  3. Recommend that your framework users store all mutable static assets inside a sub-folder inside the public folder.

    In the following example, the user can store all mutable static assets inside the public/assets folder. Then, a routing rule with the path pattern /assets/* can be used to target all mutable static assets inside the public/assets folder.

    { "path": "/assets/*", "target": { "kind": "Static" } }
  4. Specify a static fallback for the catch-all route. This approach has drawbacks that are described in more detail in the next Catch-all fallback routing section.

Catch-all fallback routing

For SSR frameworks such as Nuxt.js, where a catch-all route is specified for the compute primitive type target, framework authors might consider specifying a static fallback for the catch-all route to solve the public folder routing problem. However, this type of routing rule breaks server-side rendered 404 pages. For example, if the end user visits a page that doesn't exist, the application renders a 404 page with a status code of 404. However, if the catch-all route has a static fallback, the 404 page isn't be rendered. Instead, the request falls back to the static primitive type and still ends up with a 404 status code, but the 404 page isn't be rendered.

{ "path": "/*", "target": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" }, "fallback": { "kind": "Static" } }

Base path routing

Frameworks that offer the ability to modify the base path of the application are expected to prepend the base path to the static assets inside the .amplify-hosting/static directory. For example, if the base path is /folder1/folder2, then the build output for a static asset called main.css will be .amplify-hosting/static/folder1/folder2/main.css.

This means that the routing rules also need to be updated to reflect the base path. For example, if the base path is /folder1/folder2, then the routing rule for the static assets in the public folder will look like the following.

{ "path": "/folder1/folder2/*.*", "target": { "kind": "Static" } }

Similarly, server-side routes also need to have the base path prepended to them. For example, if the base path is /folder1/folder2, then the routing rule for the /api route will look like the following.

{ "path": "/folder1/folder2/api/*", "target": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } }

However, the base path should not be prepended to the catch-all route. For example, if the base path is /folder1/folder2, then the catch-all route will remain like the following.

{ "path": "/*", "target": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } }

Nuxt.js routes examples

The following is an example deploy-manifest.json file for a Nuxt application that demonstrates how to specify routing rules.

{ "version": 1, "routes": [ { "path": "/_nuxt/image", "target": { "kind": "ImageOptimization", "cacheControl": "public, max-age=3600, immutable" } }, { "path": "/_nuxt/builds/meta/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=31536000, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/_nuxt/builds/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=1, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/_nuxt/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=31536000, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/*.*", "target": { "kind": "Static" }, "fallback": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } }, { "path": "/*", "target": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } } ], "computeResources": [ { "name": "default", "entrypoint": "server.js", "runtime": "nodejs18.x" } ], "framework": { "name": "nuxt", "version": "3.8.1" } }

The following is an example deploy-manifest.json file for Nuxt that demonstrates how to specify routing rules including base paths.

{ "version": 1, "routes": [ { "path": "/base-path/_nuxt/image", "target": { "kind": "ImageOptimization", "cacheControl": "public, max-age=3600, immutable" } }, { "path": "/base-path/_nuxt/builds/meta/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=31536000, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/base-path/_nuxt/builds/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=1, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/base-path/_nuxt/*", "target": { "cacheControl": "public, max-age=31536000, immutable", "kind": "Static" } }, { "path": "/base-path/*.*", "target": { "kind": "Static" }, "fallback": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } }, { "path": "/*", "target": { "kind": "Compute", "src": "default" } } ], "computeResources": [ { "name": "default", "entrypoint": "server.js", "runtime": "nodejs18.x" } ], "framework": { "name": "nuxt", "version": "3.8.1" } }

For more information about using the routes attribute, see Using the routes attribute.