Amazon EMR
Amazon EMR Release Guide

Using HBase Snapshots

HBase uses a built-in snapshot functionality to create lightweight backups of tables. In EMR clusters, these backups can be exported to Amazon S3 using EMRFS. You can create a snapshot on the master node using the HBase shell. This topic shows you how to run these commands interactively with the shell or through a step using command-runner.jar with either the AWS CLI or AWS SDK for Java. For more information about other types of HBase backups, see HBase Backup in the HBase documentation.

Create a snapshot using a table

hbase snapshot create -n snapshotName -t tableName

Using command-runner.jar from the AWS CLI:

aws emr add-steps --cluster-id j-2AXXXXXXGAPLF \ --steps Name="HBase Shell Step",Jar="command-runner.jar",\ Args=[ "hbase", "snapshot", "create","-n","snapshotName","-t","tableName"]

AWS SDK for Java

HadoopJarStepConfig hbaseSnapshotConf = new HadoopJarStepConfig() .withJar("command-runner.jar") .withArgs("hbase","snapshot","create","-n","snapshotName","-t","tableName");

Note

If your snapshot name is not unique, the create operation fails with a return code of -1 or 255 but you may not see an error message that states what went wrong. To use the same snapshot name, delete it and then re-create it.

Delete a snapshot

hbase shell >> delete_snapshot 'snapshotName'

View snapshot info

hbase snapshot info -snapshot snapshotName

Export a snapshot to Amazon S3

Important

If you do not specify a -mappers value when exporting a snapshot, HBase uses an arbitrary calculation to determine the number of mappers. This value can be very large depending on your table size, which negatively affects running jobs during the export. For this reason, we recommend that you specify the -mappers parameter, the -bandwidth parameter (which specifies the bandwidth consumption in megabytes per second), or both to limit the cluster resources used by the export operation. Alternatively, you can run the export snapshot operation during a period of low usage.

hbase snapshot export -snapshot snapshotName \ -copy-to s3://bucketName/folder -mappers 2

Using command-runner.jar from the AWS CLI:

aws emr add-steps --cluster-id j-2AXXXXXXGAPLF \ --steps Name="HBase Shell Step",Jar="command-runner.jar",\ Args=[ "hbase", "snapshot", "export","-snapshot","snapshotName","-copy-to","s3://bucketName/folder","-mappers","2","-bandwidth","50"]

AWS SDK for Java:

HadoopJarStepConfig hbaseImportSnapshotConf = new HadoopJarStepConfig() .withJar("command-runner.jar") .withArgs("hbase","snapshot","export", "-snapshot","snapshotName","-copy-to", ""s3://bucketName/folder", "-mappers","2","-bandwidth","50");

Import snapshot from Amazon S3

Although this is an import, the HBase option used here is still export.

sudo -u hbase hbase snapshot export \ -D hbase.rootdir=s3://bucketName/folder \ -snapshot snapshotName \ -copy-to hdfs://masterPublicDNSName:8020/user/hbase \ -mappers 2

Using command-runner.jar from the AWS CLI:

aws emr add-steps --cluster-id j-2AXXXXXXGAPLF \ --steps Name="HBase Shell Step",Jar="command-runner.jar", \ Args=["sudo","-u","hbase","hbase snapshot export","-snapshot","snapshotName", \ "-D","hbase.rootdir=s3://bucketName/folder", \ "-copy-to","hdfs://masterPublicDNSName:8020/user/hbase","-mappers","2","-chmod","700"]

AWS SDK for Java:

HadoopJarStepConfig hbaseImportSnapshotConf = new HadoopJarStepConfig() .withJar("command-runner.jar") .withArgs("sudo","-u","hbase","hbase","snapshot","export", "-D","hbase.rootdir=s3://bucketName/folder", "-snapshot","snapshotName","-copy-to", "hdfs://masterPublicDNSName:8020/user/hbase", "-mappers","2","-chuser","hbase");

Restore a table from snapshots within the HBase shell

hbase shell >> disable tableName >> restore_snapshot snapshotName >> enable tableName

HBase currently does not support all snapshot commands found in the HBase shell. For example, there is no HBase command-line option to restore a snapshot, so you must restore it within a shell. This means that command-runner.jar must run a Bash command.

Note

Because the command used here is echo, it is possible that your shell command will still fail even if the command run by Amazon EMR returns a 0 exit code. Check the step logs if you choose to run a shell command as a step.

echo 'disable tableName; \ restore_snapshot snapshotName; \ enable tableName' | hbase shell

Here is the step using the AWS CLI. First, create the following snapshot.json file:

[ { "Name": "restore", "Args": ["bash", "-c", "echo $'disable \"tableName\"; restore_snapshot \"snapshotName\"; enable \"tableName\"' | hbase shell"], "Jar": "command-runner.jar", "ActionOnFailure": "CONTINUE", "Type": "CUSTOM_JAR" } ]
aws emr add-steps --cluster-id j-2AXXXXXXGAPLF \ --steps file://./snapshot.json

AWS SDK for Java:

HadoopJarStepConfig hbaseRestoreSnapshotConf = new HadoopJarStepConfig() .withJar("command-runner.jar") .withArgs("bash","-c","echo $'disable \"tableName\"; restore_snapshot \"snapshotName\"; enable \"snapshotName\"' | hbase shell");