Encrypting client connections to MariaDB DB instances with SSL/TLS - Amazon Relational Database Service

Encrypting client connections to MariaDB DB instances with SSL/TLS

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is an industry-standard protocol for securing network connections between client and server. After SSL version 3.0, the name was changed to Transport Layer Security (TLS). Amazon RDS supports SSL/TLS encryption for MariaDB DB instances. Using SSL/TLS, you can encrypt a connection between your application client and your MariaDB DB instance. SSL/TLS support is available in all AWS Regions.

Using SSL/TLS with a MariaDB DB instance

Amazon RDS creates an SSL/TLS certificate and installs the certificate on the DB instance when Amazon RDS provisions the instance. These certificates are signed by a certificate authority. The SSL/TLS certificate includes the DB instance endpoint as the Common Name (CN) for the SSL/TLS certificate to guard against spoofing attacks.

An SSL/TLS certificate created by Amazon RDS is the trusted root entity and should work in most cases but might fail if your application does not accept certificate chains. If your application does not accept certificate chains, you might need to use an intermediate certificate to connect to your AWS Region. For example, you must use an intermediate certificate to connect to the AWS GovCloud (US) Regions using SSL/TLS.

For information about downloading certificates, see Using SSL/TLS to encrypt a connection to a DB instance. For more information about using SSL/TLS with MySQL, see Using new SSL/TLS certificates for MariaDB DB instances.

Amazon RDS for MariaDB supports Transport Layer Security (TLS) versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 for all MariaDB versions.

You can require SSL/TLS connections for specific users accounts. For example, you can use one of the following statements, depending on your MariaDB version, to require SSL/TLS connections on the user account encrypted_user.

Use the following statement.

ALTER USER 'encrypted_user'@'%' REQUIRE SSL;

For more information on SSL/TLS connections with MariaDB, see Securing Connections for Client and Server in the MariaDB documentation.

Connecting from the MySQL command-line client with SSL/TLS (encrypted)

The mysql client program parameters are slightly different if you are using the MySQL 5.7 version, the MySQL 8.0 version, or the MariaDB version.

To find out which version you have, run the mysql command with the --version option. In the following example, the output shows that the client program is from MariaDB.

$ mysql --version mysql Ver 15.1 Distrib 10.5.15-MariaDB, for osx10.15 (x86_64) using readline 5.1

Most Linux distributions, such as Amazon Linux, CentOS, SUSE, and Debian have replaced MySQL with MariaDB, and the mysql version in them is from MariaDB.

To connect to your DB instance using SSL/TLS, follow these steps:

To connect to a DB instance with SSL/TLS using the MySQL command-line client

  1. Download a root certificate that works for all AWS Regions.

    For information about downloading certificates, see Using SSL/TLS to encrypt a connection to a DB instance.

  2. Use a MySQL command-line client to connect to a DB instance with SSL/TLS encryption. For the -h parameter, substitute the DNS name (endpoint) for your DB instance. For the --ssl-ca parameter, substitute the SSL/TLS certificate file name. For the -P parameter, substitute the port for your DB instance. For the -u parameter, substitute the user name of a valid database user, such as the master user. Enter the master user password when prompted.

    The following example shows how to launch the client using the --ssl-ca parameter using the MariaDB client:

    mysql -h mysql–instance1.123456789012.us-east-1.rds.amazonaws.com --ssl-ca=global-bundle.pem --ssl -P 3306 -u myadmin -p

    To require that the SSL/TLS connection verifies the DB instance endpoint against the endpoint in the SSL/TLS certificate, enter the following command:

    mysql -h mysql–instance1.123456789012.us-east-1.rds.amazonaws.com --ssl-ca=global-bundle.pem --ssl-verify-server-cert -P 3306 -u myadmin -p

    The following example shows how to launch the client using the --ssl-ca parameter using the MySQL 5.7 client or later:

    mysql -h mysql–instance1.123456789012.us-east-1.rds.amazonaws.com --ssl-ca=global-bundle.pem --ssl-mode=REQUIRED -P 3306 -u myadmin -p
  3. Enter the master user password when prompted.

You should see output similar to the following.

Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MariaDB connection id is 31 Server version: 10.5.15-MariaDB-log Source distribution Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. MariaDB [(none)]>