Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics
SQL Reference

Expressions and Literals

Value expressions

Value expressions are defined by the following syntax:

value-expression := <character-expression > | <number-expression> | <datetime-expression> | <interval-expression> | <boolean-expression>

Character (string) expressions

Character expressions are defined by the following syntax:

character-expression := <character-literal>                  | <character-expression> || <character-expression>                  | <character-function> ( <parameters> ) character-literal  := <quote> { <character> }* <quote> string-literal     := <quote> { <character> }* <quote> character-function   :=   CAST | COALESCE | CURRENT_PATH                  | FIRST_VALUE  | INITCAP | LAST_VALUE                  | LOWER | MAX | MIN | NULLIF                  | OVERLAY | SUBSTRING| SYSTEM_USER                  | TRIM | UPPER                  | <user-defined-function>

Note that Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics streaming SQL supports unicode character literals, such as u&'foo'. As in the use of regular literals, you can escape single quotes in these, such as u&'can''t'. Unlike regular literals, you can have unicode escapes: e.g., u&'\0009' is a string consisting only of a tab character. You can escape a \ with another \, such as u&'back\\slash'. Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics also supports alternate escape characters, such as u&'!0009!!' uescape '!' is a tab character.

Numeric expressions

Numeric expressions are defined by the following syntax:

number-expression := <number-literal>                  | <number-unary-oper> <number-expression>                  | <number-expression> <number-operator> <number-expression>                  | <number-function> [ ( <parameters> ) ] number-literal :=   <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> | <DECIMAL_NUMERIC_LITERAL>                           | <APPROX_NUMERIC_LITERAL>
--Note: An <APPROX_NUMERIC_LITERAL> is a number in scientific notation, such as with an --exponent, such as 1e2 or -1.5E-6. number-unary-oper := + | - number-operator      :=   + | - | / | * number-function      :=   ABS | AVG | CAST | CEIL                          | CEILING | CHAR_LENGTH                          | CHARACTER_LENGTH | COALESCE                          | COUNT | EXP | EXTRACT                          | FIRST_VALUE                          | FLOOR | LAST_VALUE                          | LN | LOG10                          | MAX | MIN  | MOD                          | NULLIF                          | POSITION | POWER                          | SUM| <user-defined-function>

Date / Time expressions

Date / Time expressions are defined by the following syntax:

datetime-expression := <datetime-literal>                          | <datetime-expression> [ + | - ] <number-expression>                          | <datetime-function> [ ( <parameters> ) ] datetime-literal    :=  <left_brace> { <character-literal> } *  <right_brace>                          |  <DATE> { <character-literal> } *                          |  <TIME> { <character-literal> } *                          |  <TIMESTAMP> { <character-literal> } * datetime-function   :=    CAST | CEIL | CEILING                          | CURRENT_DATE | CURRENT_ROW_TIMESTAMP                          | CURRENT_ROW_TIMESTAMP                          | FIRST_VALUE| FLOOR                          | LAST_VALUE | LOCALTIME                          | LOCALTIMESTAMP | MAX | MIN                          | NULLIF | ROWTIME                          | <user-defined-function> <time unit>         :=  YEAR | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND

Interval Expression

Interval expressions are defined by the following syntax:

interval-expression := <interval-literal>                          | <interval-function> interval-literal    :=    <INTERVAL> ( <MINUS> | <PLUS> ) <QUOTED_STRING> <IntervalQualifier> IntervalQualifier  :=  <YEAR> ( <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> )                          | <YEAR> ( <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> ) <TO> <MONTH>                          |  <MONTH> [ ( <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> ) ]                          |  <DAY> [ (  <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> )  ]                          |  <DAY> [ (  <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> )  ] <TO>                                    { <HOUR> | <MINUTE> | <SECOND> [ ( <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> ) ] }                          |  <HOUR> [ (  <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> ) ]                          |  <HOUR> [ (  <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> ) ] <TO>                                    { <MINUTE> | <SECOND> [ <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> ] }                          |  <MINUTE> [ ( <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> )  ]                          |  <MINUTE> [ ( <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> )  ] <TO>                                     <SECOND> [ ( <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> ) ]                          |  <SECOND> [ ( <UNSIGNED_INTEGER_LITERAL> )  ] interval-function   :=    ABS  | CAST | FIRST_VALUE                          | LAST_VALUE | MAX | MIN                          | NULLIF| <user-defined-function>

Boolean expression

Boolean expressions are defined by the following syntax:

boolean-expression := <boolean-literal>                  | <boolean-expression> <boolean-operator> <boolean-expression>                  | <boolean-unary-oper> <boolean-expression>                         | <boolean-function> ( <parameters> )                         | ( <boolean-expression> ) boolean-literal    :=  TRUE | FALSE boolean-operator   :=  AND | OR boolean-unary-oper :=  NOT boolean-function   :=    CAST | FIRST_VALUE | LAST_VALUE                         | NULLIF | <user-defined-function>