Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics
SQL Reference

Query

Syntax

<query> :=     <select>   | <query> <set-operator> [ ALL ] <query>   | VALUES <row-constructor> { , <row-constructor> }...   | '(' <query> ')'  <set-operator> :=     EXCEPT   | INTERSECT   | UNION  <row-constructor> :=     [ ROW ] ( <expression> { , <expression> }... )

select

The select box in the chart above represents any SELECT command; that command is described in detail on its own page.

Set operators (EXCEPT, INTERSECT, UNION)

Set operators combine rows produced by queries using set operations:

  • EXCEPT returns all rows that are in the first set but not in the second

  • INTERSECT returns all rows that are in both first and second sets

  • UNION returns all rows that are in either set

In all cases, the two sets must have the same number of columns, and the column types must be assignment-compatible. The column names of the resulting relation are the names of the columns of the first query.

With the ALL keyword, the operators use the semantics of a mathematical multiset, meaning that duplicate rows are not eliminated. For example, if a particular row occurs 5 times in the first set and 2 times in the second set, then UNION ALL will emit the row 3 + 2 = 5 times.

ALL is not currently supported for EXCEPT or INTERSECT.

All operators are left-associative, and INTERSECT has higher precedence than EXCEPT or UNION, which have the same precedence. To override default precedence, you can use parentheses. For example:

SELECT * FROM a UNION SELECT * FROM b INTERSECT SELECT * FROM c EXCEPT SELECT * FROM d EXCEPT SELECT * FROM E

is equivalent to the fully-parenthesized query

( ( SELECT * FROM a    UNION    ( SELECT * FROM b      INTERSECT      SELECT * FROM c) )  EXCEPT  SELECT * FROM d ) EXCEPT SELECT * FROM e

Streaming set operators

UNION ALL is the only set operator that can be applied to streams. Both sides of the operator must be streams; it is an error if one side is a stream and the other is a relation.

For example, the following query produces a stream of orders taken over the phone or via the web:

SELECT STREAM *  FROM PhoneOrders UNION ALL SELECT STREAM *  FROM WebOrders

Rowtime generation. The rowtime of a row emitted from streaming UNION ALL is the same as the timestamp of the input row.

Rowtime bounds: A rowtime bound is an assertion about the future contents of a stream. It states that the next row in the stream will have a ROWTIME no earlier than the value of the bound. For example, if a rowtime bound is 2018-12-0223:23:07, this tells the system that the next row will arrive no earlier than 2018-12-0223:23:07. Rowtime bounds are useful in managing gaps in data flow, such as those left overnight on a stock exchange.

Amazon Kinesis Data Analytics ensures that the ROWTIME column is ascending by merging the incoming rows on the basis of the time stamp. If the first set has rows that are timestamped 10:00 and 10:30, and the second set has only reached 10:15, Kinesis Data Analytics pauses the first set and waits for the second set to reach 10:30. In this case, it would be advantageous if the producer of the second set were to send a rowtime bound.

VALUES operator

The VALUES operator expresses a constant relation in a query. (See also the discussion of VALUES in the topic SELECT in this guide.)

VALUES can be used as a top-level query, as follows:

VALUES 1 + 2 > 3; EXPR$0 ====== FALSE VALUES    (42, 'Fred'),    (34, 'Wilma'); EXPR$0 EXPR$1 ====== ======    42 Fred    34 Wilma

Note that the system has generated arbitrary column names for anonymous expressions. You can assign column names by putting VALUES into a subquery and using an AS clause:

SELECT * FROM (    VALUES        (42, 'Fred'),        (34, 'Wilma')) AS t (age, name); AGE NAME === ===== 42 Fred 34 Wilma