Legacy Reference

Animation Overview

One of Lumberyard’s goals is to push the boundaries of animations, which are all rendered in real time. Lumberyard provides tools to create both linear and interactive animations:

  • Linear animation is the kind of animation seen in movies and cut-scenes, which play as a video.

  • Interactive animation is used to convey AI and avatar (player) behavior, with sequences dependent on player choices in gameplay.

There is a big difference between how each type of animation is incorporated into a game, although this difference may not be obvious to the player, who simply sees characters moving on-screen. The key difference is in the decision-making process: who decides what a character on the screen is going to do next?

Linear Animations

In linear animation, the decision-making process happens inside the head of the people designing the animation. During this process, an animator has direct control over every single keyframe. They don’t need to deal with collision detection, physics and pathfinding; characters only run into walls or collide with each other when the animator wants them to. AI behavior does not need to react to player behavior; the person who writes the storyboard decides how intelligent or stupid the characters are. To show interactions between characters, you can put them in motion-capture suits and record their performances.

A linear animation sequence needs to show action from a single camera angle because the audience won't be moving during the animation; as a result, animators don't need to deal with transitions and motion combinations; they control every aspect of the motion clip. Because everything is fixed and predicable, it's possible to guarantee a consistent motion quality. Animators can always go back and adjust details in the scene, such as add or delete keyframes, adjust the lighting, or change the camera position.

The technical challenges with creating linear animation primarily involve rendering issues, such as not dropping the frame rate and ensuring that facial and body animations are in sync.

All linear animations in Lumberyard are created with Track View editor.

Interactive Animations

Creating interactive animations presents significantly tougher challenges. Animators and programmers do not have direct control over a character's on-screen movements. It is not always obvious where and how the decision-making process happens. It is usually a complex combination of AI systems, player input, and sometimes contextual behavior.

By definition, interactive animation is responsive. It looks visibly different depending on an individual user's input and adapts automatically to actions on the screen. Moving from linear animation to interactive animation requires more than just a set of small tweaks or a change in complexity—it requires a completely different technology under the hood. With interactive animation, an animator cannot precisely plan and model a character's behavior. Instead, animators and programmers develop a system that allows them to synthesize motion automatically and define rules for character behavior.

Automatic motion synthesis is a crucial feature in making animation more interactive. A system that synthesizes motion must be very flexible, because it is difficult to predict the sequence of actions that a character may take, and each action can start at any time.

Imagine, for example, a character moving through an outdoor environment. At a minimum, the designer needs to specify the style, speed, and direction of the character's locomotion. There should also be variations in motion while running uphill or downhill, leaning when running around corners or carrying objects of different sizes and weights—the character should run faster while carrying a pistol than when hefting a rocket launcher. It might also be necessary to interactively control emotional features such as happiness, anger, fear, and tiredness. Additionally, the character may need to perform multiple tasks simultaneously, such as walking in one direction, turning head and eyes to track a bird in another direction, and aiming a gun at a moving object in third direction. Providing unique animation assets for every possible combination and degree of freedom is nearly impossible and would involve an incredibly large amount of data. A mechanism for motion modifications is needed to keep the asset count as low as possible.

Developing such a system involves close collaboration and a tight feedback loop between programmers, animators, and designers. Problems with the behavior and locomotion systems (either responsiveness or motion quality) are usually addressed from several sides.

Interactive animation can be divided into two categories: Avatar control and AI control. In both cases, animators and programmers have indirect control over the actual behavior of a character in gameplay, because decision making for the character's next action happens elsewhere. Let's take a closer look at the situation in game environments.

Avatar control

An avatar character is controlled by the game player, whose decisions determine all of the avatar's actions. The locomotion system takes the player's input and translates it on the fly into skeleton movements (using procedural and data-driven methods). With avatar control, high responsiveness is the top priority, while motion quality might be limited by the game rules. This means that many well-established rules for 'nice'-looking animations are in direct conflict with the responsiveness you need for certain types of gameplay.

The quality of animations as executed on the screen depends largely on the skills and decisions of each player controlling the character—they decide what the avatar will do next. Because a player's actions are unpredictable, motion planning based on predictions is not possible. Complex emotional control is not possible (and probably not needed). It's only possible on a raw level, such as soft punch versus an aggressive punch. However, it might be possible to let the player control the locomotion of the avatar, and to let the game code control the emotional behavior of the avatar by blending in "additive animations" based on the in-game situation.

In all these scenes, the player is controlling the character with a game pad. The character's presentation on the screen is using animation assets created by animators.

AI control

For AI characters, the decision-making process happens entirely inside the game code. Game developers design a system to generate behavior, which acts as an intermediary between the game creators and players. For the system to perform this task, it is necessary for game designers to explicitly specify behavioral decisions and parameters for AI characters, including a clear definition of the rules of movements for each character type. Interactive animation for AI characters is much harder to accomplish than animations for avatars, but at the same time it offers some (not always obvious) opportunities to improve motion quality. High responsiveness is still the primary goal but, because character choices happen inside the game code, it is possible in certain circumstances to predict a character's actions. If the AI system knows what the AI character wants to do next, then it is possible to incorporate this knowledge into motion planning. With good motion planning, interactive animation might be able to use more classical or 'nice' animation rules. As a result, AI control can have a somewhat higher motion quality than avatar control, though at the cost of having more complex technology under the hood.

The only source of uncertainty in such a prediction system is the player: the AI reacts to the player, and predicting the player's actions is impossible. As a result, it's nearly impossible to create the right assets for every in-game situation, and this in turn makes it impossible to guarantee a consistent motion quality. For an animator working on interactive animation, it can be a significant problem to have no direct control over the final animation—it's never clear when the work is complete. This is one reason why the linear animation in movies and cut-scenes look superior, and why interactive animations can be troublesome.

Lumberyard tackles the problem with interactive animation in multiple levels:

  • In the low-level CryAnimation system library, the engine provides support for animation clips, parametrized animation, and procedural modification of poses. Animations can be sequenced together or layered on top of each other in a layered transition queue.

  • In the high-level CryAction library, the CryMannequin system helps to manage the complexity of animation variations, transitions between animations, animations that are built up out of many others, sequencing of procedural code, links to game code, and so on.

Scripted Animations

Because interactive animation is much more difficult than linear animation, many games blur the line between cut-scenes and in-game actions by using interactive scripted sequences.

In this case, characters act on a predefined path. The quality of this kind of motion can be very high. Because it is not fully interactive, animators have more control over the entire sequence, a kind of manually designed motion planning. These are perfectly reasonable cheats to overcome hard-to-solve animation problems. It may be even possible to script the entire AI sequence to allow near-cut-scene quality. The action feels interactive and looks absolutely cinematic, but it is actually more an illusion of interactivity.

In the game Crysis, Crytek designers made use of scripted animations in many scenes. In the "Sphere" cut-scene, the Hunter is shown walking uphill and downhill and stepping over obstacles. This is a scripted sequence where the assets were made for walking on flat ground, but Crytek used CCD-IK to adapt the character's legs to the uneven terrain. In the "Fleet" cut-scene with the Hunter on the carrier deck, the player can move around while the Hunter is fighting other non-playing characters.

Both scenes look and feel highly interactive but they are not. The Hunter doesn't respond to the player and the player cannot fight the Hunter. The scenes are fully linear and scripted, basically just animated background graphics. These sequences were created in Track View editor. Some of them used the Flow Graph Editor. When the cut-scene is over, the Hunter turns into an AI-controlled interactive character.