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Lumberyard
User Guide (Version 1.13)

Using EBuses in Lua

Components provide interfaces that allow scripts to send them information and receive notifications when certain actions take place. Communication is established by creating two different objects in Lua: senders and handlers. A sender or a handler is an interface to an EBus, a communication system used extensively in the Lumberyard Engine. When a sender is created, it can call functions, which in turn send information to a component. When a handler is created, the component calls certain functions that the Lua script defines. These senders and handlers are created with an entity ID. You can use the entity ID to communicate with components that are attached to entities other than the one the script itself is running on. The main script table always provides a field called entityId that contains the ID of the entity to which the script is attached. Other entity IDs can be passed to the script through the Properties interface.

Order of Component Activation

Keep in mind the following points regarding the order of activation of Lua components:

  • Lua components are activated after all C++ components have been activated.

  • If an entity has multiple Lua components, there is no guarantee regarding which Lua component is activated first.

Communicating with Components

When a Lua script creates a handler object, it notifies a component attached to an entity that it should call the script handler functions when certain events occur. For example, in the first sample below, the script creates a Spawner notification bus handler when OnActivate() is called. This tells the spawner component attached to the entity that has the script to call the OnSpawnBegin(), OnSpawnEnd(), and OnEntitySpawned() functions when the spawner instantiates a new dynamic slice. Subsequently, the handler is explicitly disconnected and set back to nil in the OnDeactivate function. This ensures that processing time is not wasted when the entity attached to the script isn't active. As long as the entity is active, these functions are called by the spawner component at the appropriate time.

The following code example shows a spawner component handler.

local SpawnerScriptSample = { } function SpawnerScriptSample:OnActivate() -- Register our handlers to receive notification from the spawner attached to this entity. if( self.spawnerNotiBusHandler == nil ) then self.spawnerNotiBusHandler = SpawnerComponentNotificationBus.CreateHandler(self, self.entityId) end end -- This handler is called when we start spawning a slice. function SpawnerScriptSample:OnSpawnBegin(sliceTicket) -- Do something so we know if/when this is being called Debug.Log("Slice Spawn Begin") end -- This handler is called when we're finished spawning a slice. function SpawnerScriptSample:OnSpawnEnd(sliceTicket) -- Do something so we know if/when this is being called Debug.Log("Slice Spawn End") end -- This handler is called whenever an entity is spawned. function SpawnerScriptSample:OnEntitySpawned(sliceTicket, entityId) -- Do something so we know if/when this is being called Debug.Log("Entity Spawned: " .. tostring(entityId) ) end function SpawnerScriptSample:OnDeactivate() -- Disconnect our spawner notificaton if self.spawnerNotiBusHandler ~= nil then self.spawnerNotiBusHandler:Disconnect() self.spawnerNotiBusHandler = nil end end return SpawnerScriptSample

Noncomponent Notifications

There are event buses that are available to Lua that are not associated with components. For example, a script can create a handler to receive notifications from the system's Tick Bus and Components whenever the engine ticks. It provides both the amount of time that has passed since the last tick and the current time point. To gain access to this information, the script simply implements the OnTick() function and creates the handler.

The following example shows how to register an EBus.

local TestScript = { } function TestScript:OnActivate() -- Inform the tick bus that you want to receive event notifications self.tickBusHandler = TickBus.CreateHandler(self) self.tickBusHandler:Connect() end -- This callback is called every frame by the tick bus after this entity activates function TestScript:OnTick(deltaTime, timePoint) -- Add script to be executed every frame here... end function TestScript:OnDeactivate() -- Inform the tick bus that you no longer want to receive notifications self.tickBusHandler:Disconnect() end return TestScript

Sending Events to a Component

In addition to receiving notifications from components, a script must sometimes exercise control over components. Control is accomplished by sending events to components using the Event table and calling the functions implemented on it. In the example script that follows, the Spawner component is sent an event that tells the component to spawn a dynamic slice by calling the Spawn() function. The first argument to an Event function is always the ID of the listener that you send the event to; the remaining arguments follow.

The following example shows how to send EBus events.

local SpawnerScript = { } function SpawnerScript:OnActivate() SpawnerComponentRequestBus.Event.Spawn(self.entityId) end return SpawnerScript

You can request information from some event sending functions that return values. The next example script uses a TransformBus to get the current local transform of the entity and uses the GetLocalTM() function, which returns a transform object. This object is stored in a variable in the main script table. TransformBus is used again to reset the transform of the object to the identity.

The following example shows how to use the transform bus.

function samplescript:OnActivate() -- Retrieve the object's local transform and store it for later use self.myOldTransform = TransformBus.Event.GetLocalTM(self.entityId) -- Reset the object's local transform to the identity matrix TransformBus.Event.SetLocalTM(self.entityId, Transform.CreateIdentity()) end

Communicating with Components Attached to Other Entities

You can also send events and create handlers to communicate with components that are attached to other entities. The following example defines a parent entity in the properties table and requests its transform. This allows it to set its transform to that of another entity.

local ParentScriptSample = { Properties = { ParentEntity = {default = EntityId()} } } function ParentScriptSample:OnActivate() if self.Properties.ParentEntity:IsValid() then self.entityBusHandler = EntityBus.Connect(self, self.Properties.ParentEntity) end end function ParentScriptSample:OnEntityActivated() local parentTransform = TransformBus.Event.GetLocalTM(self.Properties.ParentEntity) TransformBus.Event.SetLocalTM(self.entityId, parentTransform) end return ParentScriptSample

Using AZStd::vector and AZStd::array

Vectors and arrays in Lua behave very simarly to tables, with a few limitations. Both vector and array have the following features.

Length Operator #

You can obtain the length of a collection by prefixing the name of the collection with the length operator #, as in the following example.

#myCollection

Indexing []

To obtain the elements in a collection, use indexing in square brackets as the following syntax shows. Indexing is 1 based, just like Lua tables.

myCollection[index]

Vector also has the following methods for mutating the collection.

push_back

Use the push_back method to append elements to the vector, as in the following example.

myCollection:push_back(5)

pop_back

Use the pop_back method to remove the last element of the vector, as in the following example.

myCollection:pop_back()

clear

Use the clear method to remove all elements from the vector, as in the following example.

myCollection:clear()

Using AZStd::any

You can pass any Lua primitive type excluding tables to any bus or function that takes AZStd::any as a parameter (for example, GameplayNotificationBus::OnEventBegin). You can also pass any type reflected from C++ (for example, vectors or EntityId values). There is no syntax required to pass a value as an any—just call the bus or function.

The following example shows the use of AZStd::any.

GameplayNotificationBus.Broadcast.OnEventBegin(self.eventId, "The value I'd like to pass to the handler")