Simple single zone architecture with an internet gateway - AWS Network Firewall

Simple single zone architecture with an internet gateway

This topic provides a high-level view of a simple VPC configuration using an internet gateway and AWS Network Firewall. It describes the basic route table modifications that are required to use the firewall.

Single zone architecture with internet gateway and no firewall

The following figure depicts a simple VPC configuration with a single customer subnet, and no firewall. The VPC has an internet gateway for internet access. All incoming and outgoing traffic routes through the internet gateway to the subnet.


					An AWS Region is shown with a single Availability Zone. The Region also
						has an internet gateway, which has arrows out to and in from an internet
						cloud. Inside the Region, spanning part of the Availability Zone, is a VPC.
						Inside the VPC is a customer subnet. One arrow shows traffic going between
						the customer subnet and the internet gateway.

Single zone architecture with internet gateway and the Network Firewall firewall

The following figure depicts a simple VPC configuration with the firewall and the subnet association in place. The VPC has an internet gateway for internet access. All incoming and outgoing traffic for the VPC routes through the firewall.


					An AWS Region is shown with a single Availability Zone. The Region also
						has an internet gateway, which has arrows out to and in from an internet
						cloud. Inside the Region, spanning part of the Availability Zone, is a VPC.
						Inside the VPC is a customer subnet. One arrow shows traffic going between
						the customer subnet and the firewall subnet. Another arrow shows traffic
						going between the firewall subnet and the internet gateway.

To include the firewall in your Amazon Virtual Private Cloud VPC, you need to modify the VPC route tables so that traffic between the customer subnets and the internet passes through the firewall, for both incoming and outgoing traffic.

Note

For information about managing route tables for your VPC, see Route tables in the Amazon Virtual Private Cloud User Guide.

Example route tables in the single zone architecture with no firewall

The following figure depicts the route tables that provide the correct flow of traffic for a single Availability Zone without a firewall:


					An AWS Region is shown with a single Availability Zone. The Region has
						an internet gateway, which has arrows leading out to and in from an internet
						cloud. Inside the Region, spanning part of the Availability Zone, is a VPC.
						Inside the Availability Zone, the VPC has a customer subnet. The VPC address
						range is 10.0.0.0/16. The address range for the customer subnet is
						10.0.2.0/24. The route tables are listed for the internet gateway and the
						subnet. For the customer subnet, the route table directs traffic inside the
						VPC to local, and directs all other traffic to the internet gateway.

In the preceding figure, the route tables enforce the following traffic flows:

  • Internet gateway route table – Routes traffic that's destined for the customer subnet (range 10.0.2.0/24) to local. The customer subnet shows the private IP address range behind the publicly assigned address. The subnet has public addresses assigned, which are either auto-generated or assigned via Elastic IP address. Within a VPC, only private IP addresses are used for communication.

  • Customer subnet route table – Routes traffic that's destined for anywhere inside the VPC (10.0.0.0/16) to the local address. Routes traffic that's destined for anywhere else (0.0.0.0/0) to the internet gateway (igw-1232).

Example route tables in the single zone architecture with the firewall

The following figure depicts the same installation with the Network Firewall firewall added and the route tables changed to include the firewall. The route tables direct traffic between the customer subnet and the internet gateway through the firewall endpoint:


					An AWS Region is shown with a single Availability Zone. The Region has
						an internet gateway, which has arrows leading out to and in from an internet
						cloud. Inside the Region, spanning part of the Availability Zone, is a VPC.
						Inside the Availability Zone, the VPC has a firewall subnet and a customer
						subnet. The VPC address range is 10.0.0.0/16. The address range for the
						customer subnet is 10.0.2.0/24. The route tables are listed for the internet
						gateway and each of the two subnets. The route table for the internet
						gateway directs incoming traffic for the customer subnet to its firewall
						subnet. For the customer subnet, the route table directs traffic inside the
						VPC to local, and directs all other traffic to the firewall subnet. For the
						firewall subnet, the route table directs traffic inside the VPC to the
						local, and directs all other traffic to the internet gateway.

In the preceding figure, the route tables enforce the following traffic flows:

  • Internet gateway route table – Routes traffic that's destined for the customer subnet (range 10.0.2.0/24) to the firewall subnet (named vpce-4114 in the figure). The customer subnet shows the private IP address range behind the publicly assigned address. The subnet has public addresses assigned, which are either auto-generated or assigned via Elastic IP address. Within a VPC, only private IP addresses are used for communication.

  • Firewall subnet route table – Routes traffic that's destined for anywhere inside the VPC (10.0.0.0/16) to the local address. Routes traffic that's destined for anywhere else (0.0.0.0/0) to the internet gateway (igw-1232).

  • Customer subnet route table – Routes traffic that's destined for anywhere inside the VPC (10.0.0.0/16) to the local address. Routes traffic that's destined for anywhere else (0.0.0.0/0) to the firewall subnet (vpce-4114).

    Before the firewall inclusion, the customer subnet route table routed the 0.0.0.0/0 traffic to igw-1232.