k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) search in Amazon OpenSearch Service - Amazon OpenSearch Service (successor to Amazon Elasticsearch Service)

k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) search in Amazon OpenSearch Service

Short for its associated k-nearest neighbors algorithm, k-NN for Amazon OpenSearch Service lets you search for points in a vector space and find the "nearest neighbors" for those points by Euclidean distance or cosine similarity. Use cases include recommendations (for example, an "other songs you might like" feature in a music application), image recognition, and fraud detection.

Use the following tables to find the version of the k-NN plugin running on your Amazon OpenSearch Service domain. Each k-NN plugin version corresponds to an OpenSearch or Elasticsearch version.

OpenSearch
OpenSearch version k-NN plugin version Notable features
1.0

1.0.0.0

Renamed REST APIs while supporting backwards compatibility, renamed namespace from opendistro to opensearch
Elasticsearch
Elasticsearch version k-NN plugin version Notable features
7.1

1.3.0.0

Euclidean distance
7.4

1.4.0.0

7.7

1.8.0.0

Cosine similarity
7.8

1.9.0.0

7.9

1.11.0.0

Warmup API, custom scoring

7.10

1.13.0.0

Hamming distance, L1 Norm distance, Painless scripting

Full documentation for the k-NN plugin is available in the OpenSearch documentation. For background information about the k-nearest neighbors algorithm, see Wikipedia.

Getting started with k-NN

To use k-NN, you must create an index with the index.knn setting and add one or more fields of the knn_vector data type.

PUT my-index { "settings": { "index.knn": true }, "mappings": { "properties": { "my_vector1": { "type": "knn_vector", "dimension": 2 }, "my_vector2": { "type": "knn_vector", "dimension": 4 } } } }

The knn_vector data type supports a single list of up to 10,000 floats, with the number of floats defined by the required dimension parameter. After you create the index, add some data to it.

POST _bulk { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "1" } } { "my_vector1": [1.5, 2.5], "price": 12.2 } { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "2" } } { "my_vector1": [2.5, 3.5], "price": 7.1 } { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "3" } } { "my_vector1": [3.5, 4.5], "price": 12.9 } { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "4" } } { "my_vector1": [5.5, 6.5], "price": 1.2 } { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "5" } } { "my_vector1": [4.5, 5.5], "price": 3.7 } { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "6" } } { "my_vector2": [1.5, 5.5, 4.5, 6.4], "price": 10.3 } { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "7" } } { "my_vector2": [2.5, 3.5, 5.6, 6.7], "price": 5.5 } { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "8" } } { "my_vector2": [4.5, 5.5, 6.7, 3.7], "price": 4.4 } { "index": { "_index": "my-index", "_id": "9" } } { "my_vector2": [1.5, 5.5, 4.5, 6.4], "price": 8.9 }

Then you can search the data using the knn query type.

GET my-index/_search { "size": 2, "query": { "knn": { "my_vector2": { "vector": [2, 3, 5, 6], "k": 2 } } } }

In this case, k is the number of neighbors you want the query to return, but you must also include the size option. Otherwise, you get k results for each shard (and each segment) rather than k results for the entire query. k-NN supports a maximum k value of 10,000.

If you mix the knn query with other clauses, you might receive fewer than k results. In this example, the post_filter clause reduces the number of results from 2 to 1.

GET my-index/_search { "size": 2, "query": { "knn": { "my_vector2": { "vector": [2, 3, 5, 6], "k": 2 } } }, "post_filter": { "range": { "price": { "gte": 6, "lte": 10 } } } }

k-NN differences and tuning

OpenSearch lets you modify all k-NN settings using the _cluster/settings API. On OpenSearch Service, you can change all settings except knn.memory.circuit_breaker.enabled and knn.circuit_breaker.triggered. k-NN statistics are included as Amazon CloudWatch metrics.

In particular, check the KNNGraphMemoryUsage metric on each data node against the knn.memory.circuit_breaker.limit statistic and the available RAM for the instance type. OpenSearch Service uses half of an instance's RAM for the Java heap (up to a heap size of 32 GiB). By default, k-NN uses up to 50% of the remaining half, so an instance type with 32 GiB of RAM can accommodate 8 GiB of graphs (32 * 0.5 * 0.5). Performance can suffer if graph memory usage exceeds this value.