Actions dataset - Amazon Personalize

Actions dataset

An action is an engagement or revenue generating activity that you might want to recommend to your users. Actions might include installing your mobile app, completing a membership profile, joining your loyalty program, or signing up for promotional emails. You import data about your actions into an Amazon Personalize Actions dataset. Examples of data for an action include an ID for the action, the action's estimated value, or the action's expiration timestamp.

During model training, Amazon Personalize considers a maximum of 1000 actions. If you import more than 1000 actions, Amazon Personalize decides which actions to include in training, with priority given to new actions (actions you recently added with no interactions) and existing actions with recent interactions data.


You can't create next best action resources, including Actions and Action Interactions datasets, in a domain dataset group.

The maximum number of columns is 10. This topic provides information about the following types of actions data:

Action expiration timestamp data

An action expiration timestamp specifies the date at which an action is no longer valid. You provide action expiration timestamp data in Unix epoch time format, in seconds. If an action has expired, Amazon Personalize won't include it in recommendations.

Specify an action expiration timestamp for your actions if you want to limit their appearance in recommendations to a certain time frame. For example, you might have an application that is running a membership drive through a certain month. You might set an expiration timestamp for the enroll action for the end of that month. Amazon Personalize automatically stops recommending this action when this date is reached.

If you set the expiration timestamp to a time in the past for a new action, or if you update an actions timestamp to a time in the past, it can take up to 2 hours to remove the action from recommendations.

Repeat frequency data

Repeat frequency data specifies how many days Amazon Personalize should wait to recommend a particular action after a user interacts with it, based on the user's history in your Action interactions dataset. You specify an action's repeat frequency in days, with a maximum of 30.

For example, you might have an ecommerce application where each user creates an account and a profile. If you have a complete profile action and you want to wait a week after a user interacts with it before recommending it again, you would specify 7 days as the action's REPEAT_FREQENCY. After 7 days, Amazon Personalize starts considering the action for recommendations.

If you don't provide a repeat frequency for an action, Amazon Personalize will not set any limits on the number of times it appears in recommendations.

Value data

Value data is the business value or importance of each action. An action's value can be 1 – 10, where 10 is the most valuable action in your dataset.

For example, you might have two actions, one for enrolling in your basic subscription and one for enrolling in your premium service. For the basic service, you might specify a value of 5 and for the premium, a value of 10.

Amazon Personalize uses value data as one input when determining the best action to recommend to your users. For example, if a user is equally likely to take one action or another, Amazon Personalize ranks the action with the highest value higher in recommendations.

Creation timestamp data

Amazon Personalize uses creation timestamp data (in Unix epoch time format, in seconds) to calculate the age of an action and adjust recommendations accordingly.

If you don't have creation timestamp data, Amazon Personalize infers this information from any action interaction data. It uses the timestamp of the action’s oldest interaction data as the action's creation timestamp. If an action has no interaction data, its creation timestamp is set as the timestamp of the latest interaction in the training set, and Amazon Personalize considers it a new action.

Categorical metadata

Amazon Personalize uses categorical metadata about actions, such as seasonality or action exclusivity, when identifying the underlying patterns that reveal the best actions for your users. You define your own range of values based on your use case. Categorical metadata can be in any language.

You can import categorical data and use it to filter recommendations based on an action's attributes. For information about filtering recommendations, see Filtering recommendations and user segments.

Categorical values can have a maximum of 1000 characters. If you have an action with a categorical value with more than 1000 characters, your dataset import job will fail.