AWS Prescriptive Guidance glossary - AWS Prescriptive Guidance

AWS Prescriptive Guidance glossary

6 Rs

Six common migration strategies for moving applications to the cloud. These strategies build upon the 5 Rs that Gartner identified in 2011 and consist of the following:

  • Rehost (lift and shift) – Move an application to the cloud without making any changes to take advantage of cloud capabilities. Example: Migrate your on-premises Oracle database to Oracle on an EC2 instance in the AWS Cloud.

  • Replatform (lift and reshape) – Move an application to the cloud, and introduce some level of optimization to take advantage of cloud capabilities. Example: Migrate your on-premises Oracle database to Amazon RDS for Oracle in the AWS Cloud.

  • Refactor/re-architect – Move an application and modify its architecture by taking full advantage of cloud-native features to improve agility, performance, and scalability. This typically involves porting the operating system and database. Example: Migrate your on-premises Oracle database to Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL.

  • Repurchase (drop and shop) – Switch to a different product, typically by moving from a traditional license to an SaaS model. Example: Migrate your customer relationship management (CRM) system to Salesforce.com.

  • Retire – Decommission or remove applications that are no longer needed in your source environment.

  • Retain (revisit) – Keep applications in your source environment. These might include applications that require major refactoring, and you want to postpone that work until a later time, and legacy applications that you want to retain, because there’s no business justification for migrating them.

For details, see the AWS migration whitepaper.

application portfolio

A collection of detailed information about each application used by an organization, including the cost to build and maintain the application, and its business value. This information is key to the portfolio discovery and analysis process and helps identify and prioritize the applications to be migrated, modernized, and optimized.

artificial intelligence operations (AIOps)

The process of using machine learning techniques to solve operational problems, reduce operational incidents and human intervention, and increase service quality. For more information about how AIOps is used in the AWS migration strategy, see the operations integration guide.

AWS Cloud Adoption Framework (AWS CAF)

A framework of guidelines and best practices from AWS to help organizations develop an efficient and effective plan to move successfully to the cloud. AWS CAF organizes guidance into six focus areas called perspectives: business, people, governance, platform, security, and operations. The business, people, and governance perspectives focus on business skills and processes; the platform, security, and operations perspectives focus on technical skills and processes. For example, the people perspective targets stakeholders who handle human resources (HR), staffing functions, and people management. For this perspective, AWS CAF provides guidance for people development, training, and communications to help ready the organization for successful cloud adoption. For more information, see the AWS CAF website and the AWS CAF whitepaper.

AWS landing zone

A landing zone is a well-architected, multi-account AWS environment that is scalable and secure. This is a starting point from which your organizations can quickly launch and deploy workloads and applications with confidence in their security and infrastructure environment. For more information about landing zones, see Setting up a secure and scalable multi-account AWS environment.

AWS Workload Qualification Framework (AWS WQF)

A tool that evaluates database migration workloads, recommends migration strategies, and provides work estimates. AWS WQF is included with AWS Schema Conversion Tool (AWS SCT). It analyzes database schemas and code objects, application code, dependencies, and performance characteristics, and provides assessment reports. For more information, see the AWS WQF documentation.

business continuity planning (BCP)

A plan that addresses the potential impact of a disruptive event, such as a large-scale migration, on operations and enables a business to resume operations quickly.

Cloud Center of Excellence (CCoE)

A multi-disciplinary team that drives cloud adoption efforts across an organization, including developing cloud best practices, mobilizing resources, establishing migration timelines, and leading the organization through large-scale transformations. For more information, see the CCoE posts on the AWS Cloud Enterprise Strategy Blog.

cloud stages of adoption

The four phases that organizations typically go through when they migrate to the AWS Cloud:

  • Project – Running a few cloud-related projects for proof of concept and learning purposes

  • Foundation – Making foundational investments to scale your cloud adoption (e.g., creating a landing zone, defining a CCoE, establishing an operations model)

  • Migration – Migrating individual applications

  • Re-invention – Optimizing products and services, and innovating in the cloud

These stages were defined by Stephen Orban in the blog post The Journey Toward Cloud-First & the Stages of Adoption on the AWS Cloud Enterprise Strategy blog. For information about how they relate to the AWS migration strategy, see the migration readiness guide.

configuration management database (CMDB)

A database that contains information about a company’s hardware and software products, configurations, and inter-dependencies. You typically use data from a CMDB in the portfolio discovery and analysis stage of migration.

epic

In agile methodologies, functional categories that help organize and prioritize your work. Epics provide a high-level description of requirements and implementation tasks. For example, AWS CAF security epics include identity and access management, detective controls, infrastructure security, data protection, and incident response. For more information about epics in the AWS migration strategy, see the program execution guide.

heterogeneous database migration

Migrating your source database to a target database that uses a different database engine (for example, Oracle to Amazon Aurora). Heterogenous migration is typically part of a re-architecting effort, and converting the schema can be a complex task. AWS provides AWS Schema Conversion Tool (AWS SCT) can help with schema conversions.

homogeneous database migration

Migrating your source database to a target database that shares the same database engine (for example, Microsoft SQL Server to Amazon RDS for SQL Server). Homogeneous migration is typically part of a rehosting or replatforming effort. You can use native database utilities to migrate the schema.

IT information library (ITIL)

A set of best practices for delivering IT services and aligning these services with business requirements. ITIL provides the foundation for ITSM.

IT service management (ITSM)

Activities associated with designing, implementing, managing, and supporting IT services for an organization. For information about integrating cloud operations with ITSM tools, see the operations integration guide.

Migration Acceleration Program (MAP)

An AWS program that provides consulting support, training, and services to help organizations build a strong operational foundation for moving to the cloud, and to help offset the initial cost of migrations. MAP includes a migration methodology for executing legacy migrations in a methodical way and a set of tools to automate and accelerate common migration scenarios.

Migration Portfolio Assessment (MPA)

An online tool that provides information for validating the business case for migrating to the AWS Cloud. MPA provides detailed portfolio assessment (server right-sizing, pricing, TCO comparisons, migration cost analysis) as well as migration planning (application data analysis and data collection, application grouping, migration prioritization, and wave planning). The MPA tool (requires login) is available free of charge to all AWS consultants and APN Partner consultants.

Migration Readiness Assessment (MRA)

The process of gaining insights about an organization’s cloud readiness status, identifying strengths and weaknesses, and building an action plan to close identified gaps, using the AWS CAF. For more information, see the migration readiness guide. MRA is the first phase of the AWS migration strategy.

Migration Readiness and Planning (MRP)

The process of gaining hands-on migration experience, including tools, processes, and best practices, to prepare your organization for cloud migration. This phase involves migrating 10 to 30 business applications to lay the foundation for migrating your systems at scale. It consists of a defined set of activities across eight workstreams. MRP is the second phase of the AWS migration strategy.

migration at scale

The process of moving the majority of the application portfolio to the cloud in waves, with more applications moved at a faster rate in each wave. This phase uses the best practices and lessons learned from the earlier phases to implement a migration factory of teams, tools, and processes to streamline the migration of workloads through automation and agile delivery. This is the third phase of the AWS migration strategy.

migration factory

Cross-functional teams that streamline the migration of workloads through automated, agile approaches. Migration factory teams typically include operations, business analysts and owners, migration engineers, developers, and DevOps professionals working in sprints. Between 20 and 50 percent of an enterprise application portfolio consists of repeated patterns that can be optimized by a factory approach. For more information, see the discussion of migration factories and the CloudEndure Migration Factory guide in this content set.

operational-level agreement (OLA)

An agreement that clarifies what functional IT groups promise to deliver to each other, to support a service-level agreement (SLA).

operations integration (OI)

The process of modernizing operations in the cloud, which involves readiness planning, automation, and integration. For more information, see the operations integration guide.

organizational change management (OCM)

A framework for managing major, disruptive business transformations from a people, culture, and leadership perspective. OCM helps organizations prepare for, and transition to, new systems and strategies by accelerating change adoption, addressing transitional issues, and driving cultural and organizational changes. In the AWS migration strategy, this framework is called people acceleration, because of the speed of change required in cloud adoption projects. For more information, see the OCM guide.

playbook

A set of predefined steps that capture the work associated with migrations, such as delivering core operations functions in the cloud. A playbook can take the form of scripts, automated runbooks, or a summary of processes or steps required to operate your modernized environment.

responsible, accountable, consulted, informed (RACI) matrix

A matrix that defines and assigns roles and responsibilities in a project. For example, you can create a RACI to define security control ownership or to identify roles and responsibilities for specific tasks in a migration project.

runbook

A set of manual or automated procedures required to perform a specific task. These are typically built to streamline repetitive operations or procedures with high error rates.

service-level agreement (SLA)

An agreement that clarifies what an IT team promises to deliver to their customers, such as service uptime and performance.