Automatic query rewriting to use materialized views - Amazon Redshift

Automatic query rewriting to use materialized views

You can use automatic query rewriting of materialized views in Amazon Redshift to have Amazon Redshift rewrite queries to use materialized views. Doing this accelerates query workloads even for queries that don't explicitly reference a materialized view. When Amazon Redshift rewrites queries, it only uses materialized views that are up to date.

Usage notes

To check if automatic rewriting of queries is used for a query, you can inspect the query plan or STL_EXPLAIN. The following shows a SELECT statement and the EXPLAIN output of the original query plan.

SELECT catgroup, SUM(qtysold) AS sold FROM category c, event e, sales s WHERE c.catid = e.catid AND e.eventid = s.eventid GROUP BY 1; EXPLAIN XN HashAggregate (cost=920021.24..920021.24 rows=1 width=35) -> XN Hash Join DS_BCAST_INNER (cost=440004.53..920021.22 rows=4 width=35) Hash Cond: ("outer".eventid = "inner".eventid) -> XN Seq Scan on sales s (cost=0.00..7.40 rows=740 width=6) -> XN Hash (cost=440004.52..440004.52 rows=1 width=37) -> XN Hash Join DS_BCAST_INNER (cost=0.01..440004.52 rows=1 width=37) Hash Cond: ("outer".catid = "inner".catid) -> XN Seq Scan on event e (cost=0.00..2.00 rows=200 width=6) -> XN Hash (cost=0.01..0.01 rows=1 width=35) -> XN Seq Scan on category c (cost=0.00..0.01 rows=1 width=35)

The following shows the EXPLAIN output after a successful automatic rewriting. This output includes a scan on the materialized view in the query plan that replaces parts of the original query plan.

* EXPLAIN XN HashAggregate (cost=11.85..12.35 rows=200 width=41) -> XN Seq Scan on mv_tbl__tickets_mv__0 derived_table1 (cost=0.00..7.90 rows=790 width=41)

Only up-to-date (fresh) materialized views are considered for automatic rewriting of queries, irrespective of the refresh strategy, such as auto, scheduled, or manual. Hence, the original query returns up-to-date results. When a materialized view is explicitly referenced in queries, Amazon Redshift accesses currently stored data in the materialized view. This data might not reflect the latest changes from the base tables of the materialized view.

You can use automatic query rewriting of materialized views that are created on cluster version 1.0.20949 or later.

You can disable automatic query rewriting at the session level by using SET mv_enable_aqmv_for_session to FALSE.

Limitations

Following are limitations for using automatic query rewriting of materialized views:

  • Automatic query rewriting works with materialized views that don't reference or include any of the following:

    • Subqueries

    • Left, right, or full outer joins

    • Set operations

    • DISTINCT aggregates

    • Window functions

    • Any aggregates except SUM, COUNT, MIN, or MAX

    • SELECT DISTINCT or HAVING clauses

    • External tables

    • Other materialized views

  • Automatic query rewriting rewrites SELECT queries that refer to user-defined Amazon Redshift tables. Amazon Redshift doesn't rewrite the following queries:

    • CREATE TABLE AS statements

    • SELECT INTO statements

    • Queries on catalogs or system tables

    • Queries with outer joins or a SELECT DISTINCT clause

  • If a query isn't automatically rewritten, check whether you have the SELECT privilege on the specified materialized view and the mv_enable_aqmv_for_session option is set to TRUE.

    You can also check if your materialized views are eligible for automatic rewriting of queries by inspecting STV_MV_INFO. For more information, see STV_MV_INFO.