CASE conditional expression - Amazon Redshift

CASE conditional expression

The CASE expression is a conditional expression, similar to if/then/else statements found in other languages. CASE is used to specify a result when there are multiple conditions. Use CASE where a SQL expression is valid, such as in a SELECT command.

There are two types of CASE expressions: simple and searched.

  • In simple CASE expressions, an expression is compared with a value. When a match is found, the specified action in the THEN clause is applied. If no match is found, the action in the ELSE clause is applied.

  • In searched CASE expressions, each CASE is evaluated based on a Boolean expression, and the CASE statement returns the first matching CASE. If no match is found among the WHEN clauses, the action in the ELSE clause is returned.


Simple CASE statement used to match conditions:

CASE expression WHEN value THEN result [WHEN...] [ELSE result] END

Searched CASE statement used to evaluate each condition:

CASE WHEN condition THEN result [WHEN ...] [ELSE result] END



A column name or any valid expression.


Value that the expression is compared with, such as a numeric constant or a character string.


The target value or expression that is returned when an expression or Boolean condition is evaluated. The data types of all the result expressions must be convertible to a single output type.


A Boolean expression that evaluates to true or false. If condition is true, the value of the CASE expression is the result that follows the condition, and the remainder of the CASE expression is not processed. If condition is false, any subsequent WHEN clauses are evaluated. If no WHEN condition results are true, the value of the CASE expression is the result of the ELSE clause. If the ELSE clause is omitted and no condition is true, the result is null.


The following examples use the VENUE table and SALES table from the sample TICKIT data. For more information, see Sample database.

Use a simple CASE expression to replace New York City with Big Apple in a query against the VENUE table. Replace all other city names with other.

select venuecity, case venuecity when 'New York City' then 'Big Apple' else 'other' end from venue order by venueid desc; venuecity | case -----------------+----------- Los Angeles | other New York City | Big Apple San Francisco | other Baltimore | other ...

Use a searched CASE expression to assign group numbers based on the PRICEPAID value for individual ticket sales:

select pricepaid, case when pricepaid <10000 then 'group 1' when pricepaid >10000 then 'group 2' else 'group 3' end from sales order by 1 desc; pricepaid | case ----------+--------- 12624 | group 2 10000 | group 3 10000 | group 3 9996 | group 1 9988 | group 1 ...