Amazon Kinesis Data Streams
Developer Guide

Step 5: Implement the Consumer

The consumer application in the Tutorial: Analyzing Real-Time Stock Data Using Kinesis Data Streams continuously processes the stock trades stream that you created in Step 4: Implement the Producer. It then outputs the most popular stocks being bought and sold every minute. The application is built on top of the Kinesis Client Library (KCL), which does much of the heavy lifting common to consumer apps. For more information, see Developing Consumers Using the Kinesis Client Library 1.x.

Refer to the source code and review the following information.

StockTradesProcessor class

Main class of the consumer, provided for you, which performs the following tasks:

  • Reads the application, stream, and Region names, passed in as arguments.

  • Reads credentials from ~/.aws/credentials.

  • Creates a RecordProcessorFactory instance that serves instances of RecordProcessor, implemented by a StockTradeRecordProcessor instance.

  • Creates a KCL worker with the RecordProcessorFactory instance and a standard configuration including the stream name, credentials, and application name.

  • The worker creates a new thread for each shard (assigned to this consumer instance), which continuously loops to read records from Kinesis Data Streams. It then invokes the RecordProcessor instance to process each batch of records received.

StockTradeRecordProcessor class

Implementation of the RecordProcessor instance, which in turn implements three required methods: initialize, processRecords, and shutdown.

As the names suggest, initialize and shutdown are used by the Kinesis Client Library to let the record processor know when it should be ready to start receiving records and when it should expect to stop receiving records, respectively, so it can do any application-specific setup and termination tasks. The code for these is provided for you. The main processing happens in the processRecords method, which in turn uses processRecord for each record. This latter method is provided as mostly empty skeleton code for you to implement in the next step, where it is explained further.

Also of note is the implementation of support methods for processRecord: reportStats, and resetStats, which are empty in the original source code.

The processsRecords method is implemented for you, and performs the following steps:

  • For each record passed in, calls processRecord on it.

  • If at least 1 minute has elapsed since the last report, calls reportStats(), which prints out the latest stats, and then resetStats() which clears the stats so that the next interval includes only new records.

  • Sets the next reporting time.

  • If at least 1 minute has elapsed since the last checkpoint, calls checkpoint().

  • Sets the next checkpointing time.

This method uses 60-second intervals for the reporting and checkpointing rate. For more information about checkpointing, see Additional Information About the Consumer.

StockStats class

This class provides data retention and statistics tracking for the most popular stocks over time. This code is provided for you and contains the following methods:

  • addStockTrade(StockTrade): Injects the given StockTrade into the running statistics.

  • toString(): Returns the statistics in a formatted string.

This class keeps track of the most popular stock by keeping a running count of the total number of trades for each stock and the maximum count. It updates these counts whenever a stock trade arrives.

Add code to the methods of the StockTradeRecordProcessor class, as shown in the following steps.

To implement the consumer

  1. Implement the processRecord method by instantiating a correctly sized StockTrade object and adding the record data to it, logging a warning if there's a problem.

    StockTrade trade = StockTrade.fromJsonAsBytes(record.getData().array()); if (trade == null) { LOG.warn("Skipping record. Unable to parse record into StockTrade. Partition Key: " + record.getPartitionKey()); return; } stockStats.addStockTrade(trade);
  2. Implement a simple reportStats method. Feel free to modify the output format to your preferences.

    System.out.println("****** Shard " + kinesisShardId + " stats for last 1 minute ******\n" + stockStats + "\n" + "****************************************************************\n");
  3. Finally, implement the resetStats method, which creates a new stockStats instance.

    stockStats = new StockStats();

To run the consumer

  1. Run the producer that you wrote in Step 4: Implement the Producer to inject simulated stock trade records into your stream.

  2. Verify that the access key and secret key pair retrieved earlier (when creating the IAM user) are saved in the file ~/.aws/credentials .

  3. Run the StockTradesProcessor class with the following arguments:

    StockTradesProcessor StockTradeStream us-west-2

    Note that if you created your stream in a Region other than us-west-2, you have to specify that Region here instead.

After a minute, you should see output like the following, refreshed every minute thereafter:

****** Shard shardId-000000000001 stats for last 1 minute ****** Most popular stock being bought: WMT, 27 buys. Most popular stock being sold: PTR, 14 sells. ****************************************************************

Additional Information About the Consumer

If you are familiar with the advantages of the Kinesis Client Library, discussed in Developing Consumers Using the Kinesis Client Library 1.x and elsewhere, you might wonder why you should use it here. Although you use only a single shard stream and a single consumer instance to process it, it is still easier to implement the consumer using the KCL. Compare the code implementation steps in the producer section to the consumer, and you can see the comparative ease of implementing a consumer. This is largely due to the services that the KCL provides.

In this application, you focus on implementing a record processor class that can process individual records. You don’t have to worry about how the records are fetched from Kinesis Data Streams; The KCL fetches the records and invoke the record processor whenever there are new records available. Also, you don’t have to worry about how many shards and consumer instances there are. If the stream is scaled up, you don’t have to rewrite your application to handle more than one shard or one consumer instance.

The term checkpointing means recording the point in the stream up to the data records that have been consumed and processed thus far, so that if the application crashes, the stream is read from that point and not from the beginning of the stream. The subject of checkpointing and the various design patterns and best practices for it are outside the scope of this chapter. However, it is something you may encounter in production environments.

As you learned in Step 4: Implement the Producer, the put operations in the Kinesis Data Streams API take a partition key as input. Kinesis Data Streams uses a partition key as a mechanism to split records across multiple shards (when there is more than one shard in the stream). The same partition key always routes to the same shard. This allows the consumer that processes a particular shard to be designed with the assumption that records with the same partition key are only sent to that consumer, and no records with the same partition key end up at any other consumer. Therefore, a consumer's worker can aggregate all records with the same partition key without worrying that it might be missing needed data.

In this application, the consumer's processing of records is not intensive, so you can use one shard and do the processing in the same thread as the KCL thread. However, in practice, consider first scaling up the number of shards. In some cases you may want to switch processing to a different thread, or use a thread pool if your record processing is expected to be intensive. In this way, the KCL can fetch new records more quickly while the other threads can process the records in parallel. Multithreaded design is not trivial and should be approached with advanced techniques, so increasing your shard count is usually the most effective and easiest way to scale up.

Next Steps

Step 6: (Optional) Extending the Consumer