Using targets and rate controls to send commands to a fleet - AWS Systems Manager

Using targets and rate controls to send commands to a fleet

You can use Run Command, a capability of AWS Systems Manager, to send commands to tens, hundreds, or thousands of managed nodes by using the targets parameter. The targets parameter accepts a Key,Value combination based on tags that you specified for your managed nodes. When you run the command, the system locates and attempts to run the command on all managed nodes that match the specified tags. For more information about tagging managed instances, see Tag Editor in the AWS Resource Groups User Guide. For information about tagging your managed IoT devices, see Tag your AWS IoT Greengrass Version 2 resources in the AWS IoT Greengrass Version 2 Developer Guide.

You can also use the targets parameter to target a list of specific managed node IDs, as described in the next section.

To control how commands run across hundreds or thousands of managed nodes, Run Command also includes parameters for restricting how many nodes can simultaneously process a request and how many errors can be thrown by a command before the command is canceled.

Targeting multiple managed nodes

You can run a command and target managed nodes by specifying tags, AWS resource group names, or managed node IDs.

The following examples show the command format when using Run Command from the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI ) . Sample commands in this section are truncated using [...].

Example 1: Targeting tags

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=tag:tag-name,Values=tag-value \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=tag:tag-name,Values=tag-value ^ [...]

Example 2: Targeting an AWS resource group by name

You can specify a maximum of one resource group name per command. When you create a resource group, we recommend including AWS::SSM:ManagedInstance and AWS::EC2::Instance as resource types in your grouping criteria.

Note

In order to send commands that target a resource group, you must have been granted AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions to list or view the resources that belong to that group. For more information, see Set up permissions in the AWS Resource Groups User Guide.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=resource-groups:Name,Values=resource-group-name \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=resource-groups:Name,Values=resource-group-name ^ [...]

Example 3: Targeting an AWS resource group by resource type

You can specify a maximum of five resource group types per command. When you create a resource group, we recommend including AWS::SSM:ManagedInstance and AWS::EC2::Instance as resource types in your grouping criteria.

Note

In order to send commands that target a resource group, you must have been granted IAM permissions to list, or view, the resources that belong to that group. For more information, see Set up permissions in the AWS Resource Groups User Guide.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=resource-groups:ResourceTypeFilters,Values=resource-type-1,resource-type-2 \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=resource-groups:ResourceTypeFilters,Values=resource-type-1,resource-type-2 ^ [...]

Example 4: Targeting instance IDs

The following examples show how to target managed nodes by using the instanceids key with the targets parameter. You can use this key to target managed AWS IoT Greengrass core devices because each device is assigned an mi-ID_number. You can view device IDs in Fleet Manager, a capability of AWS Systems Manager.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=instanceids,Values=instance-ID-1,instance-ID-2,instance-ID-3 \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=instanceids,Values=instance-ID-1,instance-ID-2,instance-ID-3 ^ [...]

If you tagged managed nodes for different environments using a Key named Environment and Values of Development, Test, Pre-production and Production, then you could send a command to all managed nodes in one of these environments by using the targets parameter with the following syntax.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Development \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Development ^ [...]

You could target additional managed nodes in other environments by adding to the Values list. Separate items using commas.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Development,Test,Pre-production \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Development,Test,Pre-production ^ [...]

Variation: Refining your targets using multiple Key criteria

You can refine the number of targets for your command by including multiple Key criteria. If you include more than one Key criteria, the system targets managed nodes that meet all of the criteria. The following command targets all managed nodes tagged for the Finance Department and tagged for the database server role.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values=Finance Key=tag:ServerRole,Values=Database \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values=Finance Key=tag:ServerRole,Values=Database ^ [...]

Variation: Using multiple Key and Value criteria

Expanding on the previous example, you can target multiple departments and multiple server roles by including additional items in the Values criteria.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values=Finance,Marketing Key=tag:ServerRole,Values=WebServer,Database \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values=Finance,Marketing Key=tag:ServerRole,Values=WebServer,Database ^ [...]

Variation: Targeting tagged managed nodes using multiple Values criteria

If you tagged managed nodes for different environments using a Key named Department and Values of Sales and Finance, then you could send a command to all of the nodes in these environments by using the targets parameter with the following syntax.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values=Sales,Finance \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values=Sales,Finance ^ [...]

You can specify a maximum of five keys, and five values for each key.

If either a tag key (the tag name) or a tag value includes spaces, enclose the tag key or the value in quotation marks, as shown in the following examples.

Example: Spaces in Value tag

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=tag:OS,Values="Windows Server 2016 Nano" \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=tag:OS,Values="Windows Server 2016 Nano" ^ [...]

Example: Spaces in tag key and Value

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key="tag:Operating System",Values="Windows Server 2016 Nano" \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key="tag:Operating System",Values="Windows Server 2016 Nano" ^ [...]

Example: Spaces in one item in a list of Values

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values="Sales","Finance","Systems Mgmt" \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values="Sales","Finance","Systems Mgmt" ^ [...]

Using rate controls

You can control the rate at which commands are sent to managed nodes in a group by using concurrency controls and error controls.

Using concurrency controls

You can control the number of managed nodes that run a command simultaneously by using the max-concurrency parameter (the Concurrecy options in the Run a command page). You can specify either an absolute number of managed nodes, for example 10, or a percentage of the target set, for example 10%. The queueing system delivers the command to a single node and waits until the system acknowledges the initial invocation before sending the command to two more nodes. The system exponentially sends commands to more nodes until the system meets the value of max-concurrency. The default for value max-concurrency is 50. The following examples show you how to specify values for the max-concurrency parameter.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --max-concurrency 10 \ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Development \ [...]
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --max-concurrency 10% \ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values=Finance,Marketing Key=tag:ServerRole,Values=WebServer,Database \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --max-concurrency 10 ^ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Development ^ [...]
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --max-concurrency 10% ^ --targets Key=tag:Department,Values=Finance,Marketing Key=tag:ServerRole,Values=WebServer,Database ^ [...]

Using error controls

You can also control the execution of a command to hundreds or thousands of managed nodes by setting an error limit using the max-errors parameters (the Error threshold field in the Run a command page). The parameter specifies how many errors are allowed before the system stops sending the command to additional managed nodes. You can specify either an absolute number of errors, for example 10, or a percentage of the target set, for example 10%. If you specify 3, for example, the system stops sending the command when the fourth error is received. If you specify 0, then the system stops sending the command to additional managed nodes after the first error result is returned. If you send a command to 50 managed nodes and set max-errors to 10%, then the system stops sending the command to additional nodes when the sixth error is received.

Invocations that are already running a command when max-errors is reached are allowed to complete, but some of these invocations might fail as well. If you need to ensure that there won’t be more than max-errors failed invocations, set max-concurrency to 1 so the invocations proceed one at a time. The default for max-errors is 0. The following examples show you how to specify values for the max-errors parameter.

Linux & macOS
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --max-errors 10 \ --targets Key=tag:Database,Values=Development \ [...]
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --max-errors 10% \ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Development \ [...]
aws ssm send-command \ --document-name document-name \ --max-concurrency 1 \ --max-errors 1 \ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Production \ [...]
Windows
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --max-errors 10 ^ --targets Key=tag:Database,Values=Development ^ [...]
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --max-errors 10% ^ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Development ^ [...]
aws ssm send-command ^ --document-name document-name ^ --max-concurrency 1 ^ --max-errors 1 ^ --targets Key=tag:Environment,Values=Production ^ [...]