Multicast on transit gateways - Amazon VPC

Multicast on transit gateways

Multicast is a communication protocol used for delivering a single stream of data to multiple receiving computers simultaneously. Transit Gateway supports routing multicast traffic between subnets of attached VPCs, and it serves as a multicast router for instances sending traffic destined for multiple receiving instances.

Multicast concepts

The following are the key concepts for multicast:

  • Multicast domain — Allows segmentation of a multicast network into different domains, and makes the transit gateway act as multiple multicast routers. You define multicast domain membership at the subnet level.

  • Multicast group — Identifies a set of hosts that will send and receive the same multicast traffic. A multicast group is identified by a group IP address. Multicast group membership is defined by individual elastic network interfaces attached to EC2 instances.

  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) — An internet protocol that allows hosts and routers to dynamically manage multicast group membership. An IGMP multicast domain contains hosts that use the IGMP protocol to join, leave, and send messages. AWS supports the IGMPv2 protocol and both IGMP and static (API-based) group membership multicast domains.

  • Multicast source — An elastic network interface associated with a supported EC2 instance that is statically configured to send multicast traffic. A multicast source only applies to static source configurations.

    A static source multicast domain contains hosts that do not use the IGMP protocol to join, leave, and send messages. You use the AWS CLI to add a source and group members. The statically-added source sends multicast traffic and the members receive multicast traffic.

  • Multicast group member — An elastic network interface associated with a supported EC2 instance that receives multicast traffic. A multicast group has multiple group members. In a static source group membership configuration, multicast group members can only receive traffic. In an IGMP group configuration, members can both send and receive traffic.


  • For information about supported Regions, see AWS Transit Gateway FAQs.

  • You must create a new transit gateway to support multicast.

  • Multicast group membership is managed using the Amazon Virtual Private Cloud Console or the AWS CLI, or IGMP.

  • A subnet can only be in one multicast domain.

  • If you use a non-Nitro instance, you must disable the Source/Dest check. For information about disabling the check, see Changing the source or destination checking in the Amazon EC2 User Guide.

  • A non-Nitro instance cannot be a multicast sender.

  • Multicast routing is not supported over AWS Direct Connect, Site-to-Site VPN, peering attachments, or transit gateway Connect attachments.

  • A transit gateway does not support fragmentation of multicast packets. Fragmented multicast packets are dropped. For more information, see Maximum transmission unit (MTU).

  • At startup, an IGMP host sends multiple IGMP JOIN messages to join a multicast group (typically 2 to 3 retries). In the unlikely event that all the IGMP JOIN messages get lost, the host will not become part of transit gateway multicast group. In such a scenario you will need to re-trigger the IGMP JOIN message from the host using application specific methods.

  • A group membership starts with the receipt of IGMPv2 JOIN message by the transit gateway and ends with the receipt of the IGMPv2 LEAVE message. The transit gateway keeps track of hosts that successfully joined the group. As a cloud multicast router, transit gateway issues an IGMPv2 QUERY message to all members every two minutes. Each member sends an IGMPv2 JOIN message in response, which is how the members renew their membership. If a member fails to reply to three consecutive queries, the transit gateway removes this membership from all joined groups. However, it continues sending queries to this member for 12 hours before permanently removing the member from its to-be-queried list. An explicit IGMPv2 LEAVE message immediately and permanently removes the host from any further multicast processing.

  • The transit gateway keeps track of hosts that successfully joined the group. In the event of a transit gateway outage, the transit gateway continues to send multicast data to the host for seven minutes (420 seconds) after the last successful IGMP JOIN message. The transit gateway continues to send membership queries to the host for up to 12 hours or until it receives a IGMP LEAVE message from the host.

  • The transit gateway sends membership query packets to all the IGMP members so that it can track multicast group membership. The source IP of these IGMP query packets is, and the destination IP is and the protocol is 2. Your security group configuration on the IGMP hosts (instances), and any ACLs configuration on the host subnets must allow these IGMP protocol messages.

  • When the multicast source and destination are in the same VPC, you cannot use security group referencing to set the destination security group to accept traffic from the source's security group.

  • For static multicast groups and sources, Amazon VPC Transit Gateways automatically remove static groups and sources for ENIs that no longer exist. This is performed by periodically assuming the Transit Gateway service-linked role to describe ENIs in the account.

  • Only static multicast supports IPv6. Dynamic multicast does not.

Multicast with Windows Server

You'll need to perform additional steps when setting up multicast to work with transit gateways on Windows Server 2019 or 2022. Using PowerShell, run the following commands:

  1. Change Windows Server to use IGMPv2 instead of IGMPv3 for the TCP/IP stack:

    PS C:\> New-ItemProperty -Path HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters -Name IGMPVersion -PropertyType DWord -Value 3


    New-ItemProperty is a property index that specifies the IGMP version. Because IGMP v2 is the supported version for multicast, the property Value must be 3. Instead of editing the Windows registry you can run the following command to set the IGMP version to 2.:

    Set-NetIPv4Protocol -IGMPVersion Version2

  2. Windows Firewall drops most UDP traffic by default. You'll first need to check which connection profile is being used for multicast:

    PS C:\> Get-NetConnectionProfile | Select-Object NetworkCategory NetworkCategory --------------- Public
  3. Update the connection profile from the previous step to allow access to the required UDP port(s):

    PS C:\> Set-NetFirewallProfile -Profile Public -Enabled False

  4. Reboot the EC2 instance.

  5. Test your multicast application to ensure traffic is flowing as expected.