Selection - AWS Well-Architected Framework


PERF 1  How do you select the best performing architecture?

Often, multiple approaches are required for optimal performance across a workload. Well-architected systems use multiple solutions and features to improve performance.

Best Practices:

  • Understand the available services and resources: Learn about and understand the wide range of services and resources available in the cloud. Identify the relevant services and configuration options for your workload, and understand how to achieve optimal performance.

  • Define a process for architectural choices: Use internal experience and knowledge of the cloud, or external resources such as published use cases, relevant documentation, or whitepapers to define a process to choose resources and services. You should define a process that encourages experimentation and benchmarking with the services that could be used in your workload.

  • Factor cost requirements into decisions : Workloads often have cost requirements for operation. Use internal cost controls to select resource types and sizes based on predicted resource need.

  • Use policies or reference architectures: Maximize performance and efficiency by evaluating internal policies and existing reference architectures and using your analysis to select services and configurations for your workload.

  • Use guidance from your cloud provider or an appropriate partner: Use cloud company resources, such as solutions architects, professional services, or an appropriate partner to guide your decisions. These resources can help review and improve your architecture for optimal performance.

  • Benchmark existing workloads: Benchmark the performance of an existing workload to understand how it performs on the cloud. Use the data collected from benchmarks to drive architectural decisions.

  • Load test your workload: Deploy your latest workload architecture on the cloud using different resource types and sizes. Monitor the deployment to capture performance metrics that identify bottlenecks or excess capacity. Use this performance information to design or improve your architecture and resource selection.

PERF 2  How do you select your compute solution?

The optimal compute solution for a workload varies based on application design, usage patterns, and configuration settings. Architectures can use different compute solutions for various components and enable different features to improve performance. Selecting the wrong compute solution for an architecture can lead to lower performance efficiency.

Best Practices:

  • Evaluate the available compute options: Understand the performance characteristics of the compute-related options available to you. Know how instances, containers, and functions work, and what advantages, or disadvantages, they bring to your workload.

  • Understand the available compute configuration options: Understand how various options complement your workload, and which configuration options are best for your system. Examples of these options include instance family, sizes, features (GPU, I/O), function sizes, container instances, and single versus multi-tenancy.

  • Collect compute-related metrics: One of the best ways to understand how your compute systems are performing is to record and track the true utilization of various resources. This data can be used to make more accurate determinations about resource requirements.

  • Determine the required configuration by right-sizing: Analyze the various performance characteristics of your workload and how these characteristics relate to memory, network, and CPU usage. Use this data to choose resources that best match your workload's profile. For example, a memory-intensive workload, such as a database, could be served best by the r-family of instances. However, a bursting workload can benefit more from an elastic container system.

  • Use the available elasticity of resources: The cloud provides the flexibility to expand or reduce your resources dynamically through a variety of mechanisms to meet changes in demand. Combined with compute-related metrics, a workload can automatically respond to changes and utilize the optimal set of resources to achieve its goal.

  • Re-evaluate compute needs based on metrics: Use system-level metrics to identify the behavior and requirements of your workload over time. Evaluate your workload's needs by comparing the available resources with these requirements and make changes to your compute environment to best match your workload's profile. For example, over time a system might be observed to be more memory-intensive than initially thought, so moving to a different instance family or size could improve both performance and efficiency.

PERF 3  How do you select your storage solution?

The optimal storage solution for a system varies based on the kind of access method (block, file, or object), patterns of access (random or sequential), required throughput, frequency of access (online, offline, archival), frequency of update (WORM, dynamic), and availability and durability constraints. Well-architected systems use multiple storage solutions and enable different features to improve performance and use resources efficiently.

Best Practices:

  • Understand storage characteristics and requirements: Understand the different characteristics (for example, shareable, file size, cache size, access patterns, latency, throughput, and persistence of data) that are required to select the services that best fit your workload, such as object storage, block storage, file storage, or instance storage.

  • Evaluate available configuration options: Evaluate the various characteristics and configuration options and how they relate to storage. Understand where and how to use provisioned IOPS, SSDs, magnetic storage, object storage, archival storage, or ephemeral storage to optimize storage space and performance for your workload.

  • Make decisions based on access patterns and metrics: Choose storage systems based on your workload's access patterns and configure them by determining how the workload accesses data. Increase storage efficiency by choosing object storage over block storage. Configure the storage options you choose to match your data access patterns.

PERF 4  How do you select your database solution?

The optimal database solution for a system varies based on requirements for availability, consistency, partition tolerance, latency, durability, scalability, and query capability. Many systems use different database solutions for various subsystems and enable different features to improve performance. Selecting the wrong database solution and features for a system can lead to lower performance efficiency.

Best Practices:

  • Understand data characteristics: Understand the different characteristics of data in your workload. Determine if the workload requires transactions, how it interacts with data, and what its performance demands are. Use this data to select the best performing database approach for your workload (for example, relational databases, NoSQL Key-value, document, wide column, graph, time series, or in-memory storage).

  • Evaluate the available options: Evaluate the services and storage options that are available as part of the selection process for your workload's storage mechanisms. Understand how, and when, to use a given service or system for data storage. Learn about available configuration options that can optimize database performance or efficiency, such as provisioned IOPs, memory and compute resources, and caching.

  • Collect and record database performance metrics: Use tools, libraries, and systems that record performance measurements related to database performance. For example, measure transactions per second, slow queries, or system latency introduced when accessing the database. Use this data to understand the performance of your database systems.

  • Choose data storage based on access patterns: Use the access patterns of the workload to decide which services and technologies to use. For example, utilize a relational database for workloads that require transactions, or a key-value store that provides higher throughput but is eventually consistent where applicable.

  • Optimize data storage based on access patterns and metrics: Use performance characteristics and access patterns that optimize how data is stored or queried to achieve the best possible performance. Measure how optimizations such as indexing, key distribution, data warehouse design, or caching strategies impact system performance or overall efficiency.

PERF 5  How do you configure your networking solution?

The optimal network solution for a workload varies based on latency, throughput requirements, jitter, and bandwidth. Physical constraints, such as user or on-premises resources, determine location options. These constraints can be offset with edge locations or resource placement.

Best Practices:

  • Understand how networking impacts performance: Analyze and understand how network-related decisions impact workload performance. For example, network latency often impacts the user experience, and using the wrong protocols can starve network capacity through excessive overhead.

  • Evaluate available networking features: Evaluate networking features in the cloud that may increase performance. Measure the impact of these features through testing, metrics, and analysis. For example, take advantage of network-level features that are available to reduce latency, network distance, or jitter.

  • Choose appropriately sized dedicated connectivity or VPN for hybrid workloads: When there is a requirement for on-premise communication, ensure that you have adequate bandwidth for workload performance. Based on bandwidth requirements, a single dedicated connection or a single VPN might not be enough, and you must enable traffic load balancing across multiple connections.

  • Leverage load-balancing and encryption offloading: Distribute traffic across multiple resources or services to allow your workload to take advantage of the elasticity that the cloud provides. You can also use load balancing for offloading encryption termination to improve performance and to manage and route traffic effectively.

  • Choose network protocols to improve performance: Make decisions about protocols for communication between systems and networks based on the impact to the workload’s performance.

  • Choose your workload’s location based on network requirements: Use the cloud location options available to reduce network latency or improve throughput. Utilize AWS Regions, Availability Zones, placement groups, and edge locations such as Outposts, Local Zones, and Wavelength, to reduce network latency or improve throughput.

  • Optimize network configuration based on metrics: Use collected and analyzed data to make informed decisions about optimizing your network configuration. Measure the impact of those changes and use the impact measurements to make future decisions.