Security, Identity, and Compliance - Overview of Amazon Web Services

Security, Identity, and Compliance

Amazon Cognito

Amazon Cognito lets you add user sign-up, sign-in, and access control to your web and mobile apps quickly and easily. With Amazon Cognito, you also have the option to authenticate users through social identity providers such as Facebook, Twitter, or Amazon, with SAML identity solutions, or by using your own identity system. In addition, Amazon Cognito enables you to save data locally on users’ devices, allowing your applications to work even when the devices are offline. You can then synchronize data across users’ devices so that their app experience remains consistent regardless of the device they use.

With Amazon Cognito, you can focus on creating great app experiences instead of worrying about building, securing, and scaling a solution to handle user management, authentication, and sync across devices.

Amazon Cloud Directory

Amazon Cloud Directory enables you to build flexible, cloud-native directories for organizing hierarchies of data along multiple dimensions. With Cloud Directory, you can create directories for a variety of use cases, such as organizational charts, course catalogs, and device registries. While traditional directory solutions, such as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) and other LDAP-based directories, limit you to a single hierarchy, Cloud Directory offers you the flexibility to create directories with hierarchies that span multiple dimensions. For example, you can create an organizational chart that can be navigated through separate hierarchies for reporting structure, location, and cost center.

Amazon Cloud Directory automatically scales to hundreds of millions of objects and provides an extensible schema that can be shared with multiple applications. As a fully-managed service, Cloud Directory eliminates time-consuming and expensive administrative tasks, such as scaling infrastructure and managing servers. You simply define the schema, create a directory, and then populate your directory by making calls to the Cloud Directory API.

Amazon Detective

Amazon Detective makes it easy to analyze, investigate, and quickly identify the root cause of potential security issues or suspicious activities. Amazon Detective automatically collects log data from your AWS resources and uses machine learning, statistical analysis, and graph theory to build a linked set of data that enables you to easily conduct faster and more efficient security investigations.

AWS security services like Amazon GuardDuty, Amazon Macie, and AWS Security Hub as well as partner security products can be used to identify potential security issues, or findings. These services are really helpful in alerting you when something is wrong and pointing out where to go to fix it. But sometimes there might be a security finding where you need to dig a lot deeper and analyze more information to isolate the root cause and take action. Determining the root cause of security findings can be a complex process that often involves collecting and combining logs from many separate data sources, using extract, transform, and load (ETL) tools or custom scripting to organize the data, and then security analysts having to analyze the data and conduct lengthy investigations.

Amazon Detective simplifies this process by enabling your security teams to easily investigate and quickly get to the root cause of a finding. Amazon Detective can analyze trillions of events from multiple data sources such as Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) Flow Logs, AWS CloudTrail, and Amazon GuardDuty, and automatically creates a unified, interactive view of your resources, users, and the interactions between them over time. With this unified view, you can visualize all the details and context in one place to identify the underlying reasons for the findings, drill down into relevant historical activities, and quickly determine the root cause.

You can get started with Amazon Detective in just a few clicks in the AWS Console. There is no software to deploy, or data sources to enable and maintain.

Amazon GuardDuty

Amazon GuardDuty is a threat detection service that continuously monitors for malicious or unauthorized behavior to help you protect your AWS accounts and workloads. It monitors for activity such as unusual API calls or potentially unauthorized deployments that indicate a possible account compromise. GuardDuty also detects potentially compromised instances or reconnaissance by attackers.

Enabled with a few clicks in the AWS Management Console, Amazon GuardDuty can immediately begin analyzing billions of events across your AWS accounts for signs of risk. GuardDuty identifies suspected attackers through integrated threat intelligence feeds and uses machine learning to detect anomalies in account and workload activity. When a potential threat is detected, the service delivers a detailed security alert to the GuardDuty console and Amazon CloudWatch Events. This makes alerts actionable and easy to integrate into existing event management and workflow systems.

Amazon GuardDuty is cost effective and easy. It does not require you to deploy and maintain software or security infrastructure, meaning it can be enabled quickly with no risk of negatively impacting existing application workloads. There are no upfront costs with GuardDuty, no software to deploy, and no threat intelligence feeds required. Customers pay for the events analyzed by GuardDuty and there is a 30-day free trial available for every new account to the service.

Amazon Inspector

Amazon Inspector is an automated security assessment service that helps improve the security and compliance of applications deployed on AWS. Amazon Inspector automatically assesses applications for exposure, vulnerabilities, and deviations from best practices. After performing an assessment, Amazon Inspector produces a detailed list of security findings prioritized by level of severity. These findings can be reviewed directly or as part of detailed assessment reports which are available via the Amazon Inspector console or API.

Amazon Inspector security assessments help you check for unintended network accessibility of your Amazon EC2 instances and for vulnerabilities on those EC2 instances. Amazon Inspector assessments are offered to you as pre-defined rules packages mapped to common security best practices and vulnerability definitions. Examples of built-in rules include checking for access to your EC2 instances from the internet, remote root login being enabled, or vulnerable software versions installed. These rules are regularly updated by AWS security researchers.

Amazon Macie

Amazon Macie is a security service that uses machine learning to automatically discover, classify, and protect sensitive data in AWS. Amazon Macie recognizes sensitive data such as personally identifiable information (PII) or intellectual property, and provides you with dashboards and alerts that give visibility into how this data is being accessed or moved. The fully managed service continuously monitors data access activity for anomalies, and generates detailed alerts when it detects risk of unauthorized access or inadvertent data leaks.

AWS Artifact

AWS Artifact is your go-to, central resource for compliance-related information that matters to you. It provides on-demand access to AWS’ security and compliance reports and select online agreements. Reports available in AWS Artifact include our Service Organization Control (SOC) reports, Payment Card Industry (PCI) reports, and certifications from accreditation bodies across geographies and compliance verticals that validate the implementation and operating effectiveness of AWS security controls. Agreements available in AWS Artifact include the Business Associate Addendum (BAA) and the Nondisclosure Agreement (NDA).

AWS Audit Manager

AWS Audit Manager helps you continuously audit your AWS usage to simplify how you assess risk and compliance with regulations and industry standards. Audit Manager automates evidence collection to reduce the “all hands on deck” manual effort that often happens for audits and enable you to scale your audit capability in the cloud as your business grows. With Audit Manager, it is easy to assess if your policies, procedures, and activities – also known as controls – are operating effectively. When it is time for an audit, AWS Audit Manager helps you manage stakeholder reviews of your controls and enables you to build audit-ready reports with much less manual effort.

AWS Audit Manager’s prebuilt frameworks help translate evidence from cloud services into auditor-friendly reports by mapping your AWS resources to the requirements in industry standards or regulations, such as CIS AWS Foundations Benchmark, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS). You can also fully customize a framework and its controls for your unique business requirements. Based on the framework you select, Audit Manager launches an assessment that continuously collects and organizes relevant evidence from your AWS accounts and resources, such as resource configuration snapshots, user activity, and compliance check results.

You can get started quickly in the AWS Management Console. Just select a prebuilt framework to launch an assessment and begin automatically collecting and organizing evidence.

AWS Certificate Manager

AWS Certificate Manager is a service that lets you easily provision, manage, and deploy Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) certificates for use with AWS services and your internal connected resources. SSL/TLS certificates are used to secure network communications and establish the identity of websites over the Internet as well as resources on private networks. AWS Certificate Manager removes the time-consuming manual process of purchasing, uploading, and renewing SSL/TLS certificates.

With AWS Certificate Manager, you can quickly request a certificate, deploy it on ACM-integrated AWS resources, such as Elastic Load Balancing, Amazon CloudFront distributions, and APIs on API Gateway, and let AWS Certificate Manager handle certificate renewals. It also enables you to create private certificates for your internal resources and manage the certificate lifecycle centrally. Public and private certificates provisioned through AWS Certificate Manager for use with ACM-integrated services are free. You pay only for the AWS resources you create to run your application. With AWS Certificate Manager Private Certificate Authority, you pay monthly for the operation of the private CA and for the private certificates you issue.

AWS CloudHSM

The AWS CloudHSM is a cloud-based hardware security module (HSM) that enables you to easily generate and use your own encryption keys on the AWS Cloud. With CloudHSM, you can manage your own encryption keys using FIPS 140-2 Level 3 validated HSMs. CloudHSM offers you the flexibility to integrate with your applications using industry-standard APIs, such as PKCS#11, Java Cryptography Extensions (JCE), and Microsoft CryptoNG (CNG) libraries.

CloudHSM is standards-compliant and enables you to export all of your keys to most other commercially-available HSMs, subject to your configurations. It is a fully-managed service that automates time-consuming administrative tasks for you, such as hardware provisioning, software patching, high-availability, and backups. CloudHSM also enables you to scale quickly by adding and removing HSM capacity on-demand, with no up-front costs.

AWS Directory Service

AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory, also known as AWS Managed Microsoft AD, enables your directory-aware workloads and AWS resources to use managed Active Directory in the AWS Cloud. AWS Managed Microsoft AD is built on actual Microsoft Active Directory and does not require you to synchronize or replicate data from your existing Active Directory to the cloud. You can use standard Active Directory administration tools and take advantage of built-in Active Directory features such as Group Policy and single sign-on (SSO). With AWS Managed Microsoft AD, you can easily join Amazon EC2 and Amazon RDS for SQL Server instances to a domain, and use AWS Enterprise IT applications such as Amazon WorkSpaces with Active Directory users and groups.

AWS Firewall Manager

AWS Firewall Manager is a security management service that makes it easier to centrally configure and manage AWS WAF rules across your accounts and applications. Using Firewall Manager, you can easily roll out AWS WAF rules for your Application Load Balancers and Amazon CloudFront distributions across accounts in AWS Organizations. As new applications are created, Firewall Manager also makes it easy to bring new applications and resources into compliance with a common set of security rules from day one. Now you have a single service to build firewall rules, create security policies, and enforce them in a consistent, hierarchical manner across your entire Application Load Balancers and Amazon CloudFront infrastructure.

AWS Identity and Access Management

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) enables you to securely control access to AWS services and resources for your users. Using IAM, you can create and manage AWS users and groups, and use permissions to allow and deny their access to AWS resources. IAM allows you to do the following:

  • Manage IAM users and their access: You can create users in IAM, assign them individual security credentials (access keys, passwords, and multi-factor authentication devices), or request temporary security credentials to provide users access to AWS services and resources. You can manage permissions in order to control which operations a user can perform.

  • Manage IAM roles and their permissions: You can create roles in IAM and manage permissions to control which operations can be performed by the entity, or AWS service, that assumes the role. You can also define which entity is allowed to assume the role.

  • Manage federated users and their permissions: You can enable identity federation to allow existing identities (users, groups, and roles) in your enterprise to access the AWS Management Console, call AWS APIs, and access resources, without the need to create an IAM user for each identity.

AWS Key Management Service

AWS Key Management Service (KMS) makes it easy for you to create and manage keys and control the use of encryption across a wide range of AWS services and in your applications. AWS KMS is a secure and resilient service that uses FIPS 140-2 validated hardware security modules to protect your keys. AWS KMS is integrated with AWS CloudTrail to provide you with logs of all key usage to help meet your regulatory and compliance needs.

AWS Network Firewall

AWS Network Firewall is a managed service that makes it easy to deploy essential network protections for all of your Amazon Virtual Private Clouds (VPCs). The service can be setup with just a few clicks and scales automatically with your network traffic, so you don't have to worry about deploying and managing any infrastructure. AWS Network Firewall’s flexible rules engine lets you define firewall rules that give you fine-grained control over network traffic, such as blocking outbound Server Message Block (SMB) requests to prevent the spread of malicious activity. You can also import rules you’ve already written in common open source rule formats as well as enable integrations with managed intelligence feeds sourced by AWS partners. AWS Network Firewall works together with AWS Firewall Manager so you can build policies based on AWS Network Firewall rules and then centrally apply those policies across your VPCs and accounts.

AWS Network Firewall includes features that provide protections from common network threats. AWS Network Firewall’s stateful firewall can incorporate context from traffic flows, like tracking connections and protocol identification, to enforce policies such as preventing your VPCs from accessing domains using an unauthorized protocol. AWS Network Firewall’s intrusion prevention system (IPS) provides active traffic flow inspection so you can identify and block vulnerability exploits using signature-based detection. AWS Network Firewall also offers web filtering that can stop traffic to known bad URLs and monitor fully qualified domain names.

It’s easy to get started with AWS Network Firewall by visiting the Amazon VPC Console to create or import your firewall rules, group them into policies, and apply them to the VPCs you want to protect. AWS Network Firewall pricing is based on the number of firewalls deployed and the amount of traffic inspected. There are no upfront commitments and you pay only for what you use.

AWS Resource Access Manager

AWS Resource Access Manager (RAM) helps you securely share your resources across AWS accounts, within your organization or organizational units (OUs) in AWS Organizations, and with IAM roles and IAM users for supported resource types. You can use AWS RAM to share transit gateways, subnets, AWS License Manager license configurations, Amazon Route 53 Resolver rules, and more resource types.

Many organizations use multiple accounts to create administrative or billing isolation, and to limit the impact of errors. With AWS RAM, you don’t need to create duplicate resources in multiple AWS accounts. This reduces the operational overhead of managing resources in every account that you own. Instead, in your multi-account environment, you can create a resource once, and use AWS RAM to share that resource across accounts by creating a resource share. When you create a resource share, you select the resources to share, choose an AWS RAM managed permission per resource type, and specify whom you want to have access to the resources. AWS RAM is available to you at no additional charge.

AWS Secrets Manager

AWS Secrets Manager helps you protect secrets needed to access your applications, services, and IT resources. The service enables you to easily rotate, manage, and retrieve database credentials, API keys, and other secrets throughout their lifecycle. Users and applications retrieve secrets with a call to Secrets Manager APIs, eliminating the need to hardcode sensitive information in plain text. Secrets Manager offers secret rotation with built-in integration for Amazon RDS for MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Amazon Aurora. Also, the service is extensible to other types of secrets, including API keys and OAuth tokens. In addition, Secrets Manager enables you to control access to secrets using fine-grained permissions and audit secret rotation centrally for resources in the AWS Cloud, third-party services, and on-premises.

AWS Security Hub

AWS Security Hub gives you a comprehensive view of your high-priority security alerts and compliance status across AWS accounts. There are a range of powerful security tools at your disposal, from firewalls and endpoint protection to vulnerability and compliance scanners. But oftentimes this leaves your team switching back-and-forth between these tools to deal with hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of security alerts every day. With Security Hub, you now have a single place that aggregates, organizes, and prioritizes your security alerts, or findings, from multiple AWS services, such as Amazon GuardDuty, Amazon Inspector, and Amazon Macie, as well as from AWS Partner solutions. Your findings are visually summarized on integrated dashboards with actionable graphs and tables. You can also continuously monitor your environment using automated compliance checks based on the AWS best practices and industry standards your organization follows. Get started with AWS Security Hub just a few clicks in the Management Console and once enabled, Security Hub will begin aggregating and prioritizing findings.

AWS Shield

AWS Shield is a managed Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) protection service that safeguards web applications running on AWS. AWS Shield provides you with always-on detection and automatic inline mitigations that minimize application downtime and latency, so there is no need to engage AWS Support to benefit from DDoS protection. There are two tiers of AWS Shield: Standard and Advanced.

All AWS customers benefit from the automatic protections of AWS Shield Standard, at no additional charge. AWS Shield Standard defends against most common, frequently occurring network and transport layer DDoS attacks that target your website or applications. When you use AWS Shield Standard with Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53, you receive comprehensive availability protection against all known infrastructure (Layer 3 and 4) attacks.

For higher levels of protection against attacks targeting your applications running on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), Elastic Load Balancing (ELB), Amazon CloudFront, and Amazon Route 53 resources, you can subscribe to AWS Shield Advanced. In addition to the network and transport layer protections that come with Standard, AWS Shield Advanced provides additional detection and mitigation against large and sophisticated DDoS attacks, near real-time visibility into attacks, and integration with AWS WAF, a web application firewall. AWS Shield Advanced also gives you 24x7 access to the AWS DDoS Response Team (DRT) and protection against DDoS related spikes in your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), Elastic Load Balancing (ELB), Amazon CloudFront, and Amazon Route 53 charges.

AWS Shield Advanced is available globally on all Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53 edge locations. You can protect your web applications hosted anywhere in the world by deploying Amazon CloudFront in front of your application. Your origin servers can be Amazon S3, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), Elastic Load Balancing (ELB), or a custom server outside of AWS. You can also enable AWS Shield Advanced directly on an Elastic IP or Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) in the following AWS Regions: Northern Virginia, Ohio, Oregon, Northern California, Montreal, São Paulo, Ireland, Frankfurt, London, Paris, Stockholm, Singapore, Tokyo, Sydney, Seoul, and Mumbai.

AWS Single Sign-On

AWS Single Sign-On (SSO) is a cloud SSO service that makes it easy to centrally manage SSO access to multiple AWS accounts and business applications. With just a few clicks, you can enable a highly available SSO service without the upfront investment and on-going maintenance costs of operating your own SSO infrastructure. With AWS SSO, you can easily manage SSO access and user permissions to all of your accounts in AWS Organizations centrally. AWS SSO also includes built-in SAML integrations to many business applications, such as Salesforce, Box, and Microsoft Office 365. Further, by using the AWS SSO application configuration wizard, you can create Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0 integrations and extend SSO access to any of your SAML-enabled applications. Your users simply sign in to a user portal with credentials they configure in AWS SSO or using their existing corporate credentials to access all their assigned accounts and applications from one place.

AWS WAF

AWS WAF is a web application firewall that helps protect your web applications from common web exploits that could affect application availability, compromise security, or consume excessive resources. AWS WAF gives you control over which traffic to allow or block to your web application by defining customizable web security rules. You can use AWS WAF to create custom rules that block common attack patterns, such as SQL injection or cross-site scripting, and rules that are designed for your specific application. New rules can be deployed within minutes, letting you respond quickly to changing traffic patterns. Also, AWS WAF includes a full-featured API that you can use to automate the creation, deployment, and maintenance of web security rules.