AWS Glue - Big Data Analytics Options on AWS

AWS Glue

AWS Glue is a serverless data integration service that makes it easy to discover, prepare, and combine data for analytics, machine learning, and application development. AWS Glue provides all of the capabilities needed for data integration. It uses both visual and code-based interfaces to make data integration easier.

Users can easily find and access data using the AWS Glue Data Catalog. Data engineers and ETL developers can visually create, run, and monitor ETL workflows with a few clicks in AWS Glue Studio. Data analysts and data scientists can use AWS Glue DataBrew to visually enrich, clean, and normalize data without writing code. With AWS Glue Elastic Views, application developers can use familiar Structured Query Language (SQL) to combine and replicate data across different data stores. You pay only for the resources consumed while your jobs are running.

Ideal usage patterns

AWS Glue is designed to easily prepare data for extract, transform, and load (ETL) jobs. Using AWS Glue gives you the following benefits:

  • Data discovery

    • Automatic schema discovery, using AWS Glue crawlers

    • Manage and enforce schemas for data streams with AWS Glue Schema Registry

  • Data Catalog

    • The AWS Glue Data Catalog is a central repository to store structural and operational metadata for all your data assets. For a given dataset, you can store its table definition, physical location, add business relevant attributes, as well as track how this data has changed over time.

    • The AWS Glue Data Catalog is Apache Hive Metastore-compatible and is a drop-in replacement for the Apache Hive Metastore for Big Data applications running on Amazon EMR, and third-party applications such as Databricks.

  • Data transformation

    • Visually transform data with a drag and drop interface using AWS Glue Studio. AWS Glue automatically generates the reusable and portable code using familiar technology – Python (or Scala) and Spark.

    • Serverless streaming ETL jobs in AWS Glue continuously consume data from streaming sources including Amazon Kinesis and Amazon MSK, clean and transform it in-flight, and make it available for analysis in seconds in your target data store.

  • Data replication

    • AWS Glue Elastic Views enables you to create views over data stored in multiple types of AWS data stores, and materialize the views in a target data store of your choice by writing queries in PartiQL, an open-source SQL-compatible query language.

  • Data preparation

    • Deduplicate and cleanse data with built-in machine learning. The FindMatches feature deduplicates and finds records that are imperfect matches of each other.

    • Normalize data without code using a visual interface. AWS Glue DataBrew provides an interactive, point-and-click visual interface for users like data analysts and data scientists to clean and normalize data without writing code. Choose from over 250 built-in transformations.

  • Integration

    • Integration with data access services like Amazon Athena, Amazon EMR, and Amazon Redshift. Also with third parties.

  • Serverless

    • No infrastructure to provision or manage.

Cost model

With AWS Glue jobs (crawler and ETL), AWS Glue DataBrew jobs, and AWS Glue Elastic Views, you pay an hourly rate, billed by the second with a 1-minute minimum billing duration. For the AWS Glue Data Catalog, you pay a simple monthly fee for storing and accessing the metadata. The first million objects stored are free, and the first million accesses are free. If you provision a development endpoint to interactively develop your ETL code, you pay an hourly rate, billed per minute. AWS Glue DataBrew interactive sessions bill for the total number of the sessions used. Each session is 30 minutes. A session is initiated when you open a DataBrew project.

See AWS Glue pricing for more details.

Performance

AWS Glue uses a scale-out Apache Spark environment to load your data into its destination. You can simply specify the number of Data Processing Units (DPUs) that you want to allocate to your ETL job. An AWS Glue ETL job requires a minimum of 2 DPUs. By default, AWS Glue allocates 10 DPUs to each ETL job. Additional DPUs can be added to increase the performance of your ETL job. Multiple jobs can be triggered in parallel or sequentially by triggering them on a job completion event. You can also trigger one or more AWS Glue jobs from an external source such as AWS Step Functions or Amazon Managed Workflows for Apache Airflow.

Durability and availability

AWS Glue connects to the data source of your preference, whether it is in an Amazon S3 file, an Amazon RDS table, or another set of data. As a result, all your data is stored and available as it pertains to that data stores durability characteristics. The AWS Glue service provides status of each job and pushes all notifications to Amazon CloudWatch events. You can setup SNS notifications using CloudWatch actions to be informed of job failures or completions.

Scalability and elasticity

AWS Glue provides a managed ETL service that runs on a Serverless Apache Spark environment. This enables you to focus on your ETL job and not worry about configuring and managing the underlying compute resources. AWS Glue works on top of the Apache Spark environment to provide a scale-out run environment for your data transformation jobs.

Interfaces

AWS Glue provides a number of ways to populate metadata into the AWS Glue Data Catalog. AWS Glue crawlers scan various data stores you own to automatically infer schemas and partition structure and populate the AWS Glue Data Catalog with corresponding table definitions and statistics. You can also schedule crawlers to run periodically so that your metadata is always up-to-date and in-sync with the underlying data.

Alternately, you can add and update table details manually by using the AWS Glue Console or by calling the API. You can also run Hive DDL statements via the Amazon Athena Console or a Hive client on an Amazon EMR cluster.

Finally, if you already have a persistent Apache Hive Metastore, you can perform a bulk import of that metadata into the AWS Glue Data Catalog by using the import script.

Anti-patterns

AWS Glue has the following anti-patterns:

  • Multiple ETL engines – AWS Glue ETL jobs are Spark-based. If your use case requires you to use an engine other than Apache Spark or if you want to run a heterogeneous set of jobs that run on a variety of engines like Hive or Pig, Amazon EMR is a better choice.

  • Configurable Spark environment – AWS Glue is a fully managed service. While you can change some configuration parameters in your cluster, if your use case requires extensive configuration changes, Amazon EMR or Amazon EMR on EKS is a better choice.