範例 2:指令碼式 Runbook - AWS Systems Manager

範例 2:指令碼式 Runbook

此範例 Runbook 會處理以下案例。Emily 是 AnyCompany Consultants, LLC 的系統工程師。她先前已建立兩個 Runbook,用於父子關係,以修補託管主要和次要資料庫的 Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) 執行個體群組。應用程式每天 24 小時存取這些資料庫,因此其中一個資料庫執行個體必須永遠可用。

根據此需求,她建置了一個解決方案,使用 AWS-RunPatchBaseline Systems Manager (SSM) 文件分階段修補執行個體。透過使用此 SSM 文件,她的同事可以在修補操作完成後,檢閱相關聯的修補程式合規資訊。

先修補資料庫執行個體的主要群組,然後再修補資料庫執行個體的次要群組。此外,為了避免讓先前停用的執行個體因執行而產生額外的成本,Emily 確保了在修補發生之前,自動化將修補的執行個體恢復到其原始狀態。Emily 使用與資料庫執行個體的主要和次要群組相關聯的標籤,來識別應依照想要的順序修補哪些執行個體。

她現有的自動化解決方案可以運作,但她想要盡可能改善解決方案。為了協助維護 Runbook 內容並簡化故障診斷工作,她想要將自動化壓縮成單一 Runbook,並簡化輸入參數的數目。此外,她想避免建立多個子系自動化。

Emily 檢閱可用的自動化動作之後,決定可以使用 aws:executeScript 動作來執行她的自訂 Python 指令碼,以改善解決方案。她現在開始撰寫 Runbook 的內容,如下所示:

  1. 首先,她提供 Runbook 結構描述和描述的值,並定義父系 Runbook 的輸入參數。

    透過使用 AutomationAssumeRole 參數,Emily 和她的同事可以使用現有 IAM 角色,允許 Automation 代表他們執行 Runbook 中的動作。與範例 1 不同,AutomationAssumeRole 參數現在是必要的,而不是選用的。因為該 Runbook 包含 aws:executeScript 動作,所以 AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) 服務角色 (或假設角色) 一律是必要的。這個要求是必需的,因為一些為動作指定的 Python 指令碼會呼叫 AWS API 操作。

    Emily 使用 PrimaryPatchGroupTagSecondaryPatchGroupTag 參數來指定與要修補之資料庫執行個體主要和次要群組相關聯的標籤。為簡化必要的輸入參數,她決定使用 StringMap 參數,而不是使用多個 String 參數 (如範例 1 Runbook 所用)。(選用) OperationRebootOptionSnapshotId 參數可以用來提供值來記錄 AWS-RunPatchBaseline 的文件參數。為了防止提供無效值給這些文件參數,她會視需要定義 allowedValues

    YAML
    description: 'An example of an Automation runbook that patches groups of Amazon EC2 instances in stages.' schemaVersion: '0.3' assumeRole: '{{AutomationAssumeRole}}' parameters: AutomationAssumeRole: type: String description: '(Required) The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IAM role that allows Automation to perform the actions on your behalf. If no role is specified, Systems Manager Automation uses your IAM permissions to operate this runbook.' PrimaryPatchGroupTag: type: StringMap description: '(Required) The tag for the primary group of instances you want to patch. Specify a key-value pair. Example: {"key" : "value"}' SecondaryPatchGroupTag: type: StringMap description: '(Required) The tag for the secondary group of instances you want to patch. Specify a key-value pair. Example: {"key" : "value"}' SnapshotId: type: String description: '(Optional) The snapshot ID to use to retrieve a patch baseline snapshot.' default: '' RebootOption: type: String description: '(Optional) Reboot behavior after a patch Install operation. If you choose NoReboot and patches are installed, the instance is marked as non-compliant until a subsequent reboot and scan.' allowedValues: - NoReboot - RebootIfNeeded default: RebootIfNeeded Operation: type: String description: '(Optional) The update or configuration to perform on the instance. The system checks if patches specified in the patch baseline are installed on the instance. The install operation installs patches missing from the baseline.' allowedValues: - Install - Scan default: Install
    JSON
    { "description":"An example of an Automation runbook that patches groups of Amazon EC2 instances in stages.", "schemaVersion":"0.3", "assumeRole":"{{AutomationAssumeRole}}", "parameters":{ "AutomationAssumeRole":{ "type":"String", "description":"(Required) The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IAM role that allows Automation to perform the actions on your behalf. If no role is specified, Systems Manager Automation uses your IAM permissions to operate this runbook." }, "PrimaryPatchGroupTag":{ "type":"StringMap", "description":"(Required) The tag for the primary group of instances you want to patch. Specify a key-value pair. Example: {\"key\" : \"value\"}" }, "SecondaryPatchGroupTag":{ "type":"StringMap", "description":"(Required) The tag for the secondary group of instances you want to patch. Specify a key-value pair. Example: {\"key\" : \"value\"}" }, "SnapshotId":{ "type":"String", "description":"(Optional) The snapshot ID to use to retrieve a patch baseline snapshot.", "default":"" }, "RebootOption":{ "type":"String", "description":"(Optional) Reboot behavior after a patch Install operation. If you choose NoReboot and patches are installed, the instance is marked as non-compliant until a subsequent reboot and scan.", "allowedValues":[ "NoReboot", "RebootIfNeeded" ], "default":"RebootIfNeeded" }, "Operation":{ "type":"String", "description":"(Optional) The update or configuration to perform on the instance. The system checks if patches specified in the patch baseline are installed on the instance. The install operation installs patches missing from the baseline.", "allowedValues":[ "Install", "Scan" ], "default":"Install" } } },
  2. 定義頂層元素後,Emily 會繼續撰寫構成 Runbook mainSteps 的動作。第一個步驟會收集與 PrimaryPatchGroupTag 參數中指定標籤相關聯之所有執行個體的 ID 並輸出 StringMap 參數,其中包含執行個體 ID 和執行個體的目前狀態。此動作的輸出會用於稍後的動作。

    請注意,script 輸入參數不支援 JSON Runbook。JSON Runbook 必須使用 attachment 輸入參數提供指令碼內容。

    YAML
    mainSteps: - name: getPrimaryInstanceState action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: getInstanceStates InputPayload: primaryTag: '{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def getInstanceStates(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') tag = events['primaryTag'] tagKey, tagValue = list(tag.items())[0] instanceQuery = ec2.describe_instances( Filters=[ { "Name": "tag:" + tagKey, "Values": [tagValue] }] ) if not instanceQuery['Reservations']: noInstancesForTagString = "No instances found for specified tag." return({ 'noInstancesFound' : noInstancesForTagString }) else: queryResponse = instanceQuery['Reservations'] originalInstanceStates = {} for results in queryResponse: instanceSet = results['Instances'] for instance in instanceSet: instanceId = instance['InstanceId'] originalInstanceStates[instanceId] = instance['State']['Name'] return originalInstanceStates outputs: - Name: originalInstanceStates Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap nextStep: verifyPrimaryInstancesRunning
    JSON
    "mainSteps":[ { "name":"getPrimaryInstanceState", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"getInstanceStates", "InputPayload":{ "primaryTag":"{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"originalInstanceStates", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" } ], "nextStep":"verifyPrimaryInstancesRunning" },
  3. Emily 在另一個 aws:executeScript 動作中使用前一個動作的輸出,以確認所有與 PrimaryPatchGroupTag 參數中指定之標籤相關聯的執行個體處於 running 狀態。

    如果執行個體的狀態已經是 runningshutting-down,則指令碼會繼續迴圈剩餘的執行個體。

    如果執行個體的狀態為 stopping,則指令碼會輪詢執行個體以達到 stopped 狀態並啟動執行個體。

    如果執行個體的狀態為 stopped,則指令碼會啟動執行個體。

    YAML
    - name: verifyPrimaryInstancesRunning action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 600 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: verifyInstancesRunning InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def verifyInstancesRunning(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: if instanceDict[instance] == 'stopped': print("The target instance " + instance + " is stopped. The instance will now be started.") ec2.start_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) elif instanceDict[instance] == 'stopping': print("The target instance " + instance + " is stopping. Polling for instance to reach stopped state.") while instanceDict[instance] != 'stopped': poll = ec2.get_waiter('instance_stopped') poll.wait( InstanceIds=[instance] ) ec2.start_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) else: pass nextStep: waitForPrimaryRunningInstances
    JSON
    { "name":"verifyPrimaryInstancesRunning", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":600, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"verifyInstancesRunning", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"waitForPrimaryRunningInstances" },
  4. Emily 會驗證所有與 PrimaryPatchGroupTag 參數中指定之標籤相關聯的執行個體是否已啟動或已經處於 running 狀態。然後,她使用另一個指令碼來確認所有執行個體 (包括前一個動作中啟動的執行個體) 是否皆已達到 running 狀態。

    YAML
    - name: waitForPrimaryRunningInstances action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 300 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: waitForRunningInstances InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def waitForRunningInstances(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: poll = ec2.get_waiter('instance_running') poll.wait( InstanceIds=[instance] ) nextStep: returnPrimaryTagKey
    JSON
    { "name":"waitForPrimaryRunningInstances", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":300, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"waitForRunningInstances", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"returnPrimaryTagKey" },
  5. Emily 使用另外兩個指令碼來傳回 PrimaryPatchGroupTag 參數中指定之標籤鍵值的個別 String 值。這些動作傳回的值可讓她直接將值提供給 Targets 參數,用於 AWS-RunPatchBaseline 文件。自動化會繼續使用 aws:runCommand 動作修補具有 AWS-RunPatchBaseline 文件的執行個體。

    YAML
    - name: returnPrimaryTagKey action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnTagValues InputPayload: primaryTag: '{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def returnTagValues(events,context): tag = events['primaryTag'] tagKey = list(tag)[0] stringKey = "tag:" + tagKey return {'tagKey' : stringKey} outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: primaryPatchGroupKey Selector: $.Payload.tagKey Type: String nextStep: returnPrimaryTagValue - name: returnPrimaryTagValue action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnTagValues InputPayload: primaryTag: '{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def returnTagValues(events,context): tag = events['primaryTag'] tagKey = list(tag)[0] tagValue = tag[tagKey] return {'tagValue' : tagValue} outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: primaryPatchGroupValue Selector: $.Payload.tagValue Type: String nextStep: patchPrimaryInstances - name: patchPrimaryInstances action: 'aws:runCommand' onFailure: Abort timeoutSeconds: 7200 inputs: DocumentName: AWS-RunPatchBaseline Parameters: SnapshotId: '{{SnapshotId}}' RebootOption: '{{RebootOption}}' Operation: '{{Operation}}' Targets: - Key: '{{returnPrimaryTagKey.primaryPatchGroupKey}}' Values: - '{{returnPrimaryTagValue.primaryPatchGroupValue}}' MaxConcurrency: 10% MaxErrors: 10% nextStep: returnPrimaryToOriginalState
    JSON
    { "name":"returnPrimaryTagKey", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnTagValues", "InputPayload":{ "primaryTag":"{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"Payload", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" }, { "Name":"primaryPatchGroupKey", "Selector":"$.Payload.tagKey", "Type":"String" } ], "nextStep":"returnPrimaryTagValue" }, { "name":"returnPrimaryTagValue", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnTagValues", "InputPayload":{ "primaryTag":"{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"Payload", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" }, { "Name":"primaryPatchGroupValue", "Selector":"$.Payload.tagValue", "Type":"String" } ], "nextStep":"patchPrimaryInstances" }, { "name":"patchPrimaryInstances", "action":"aws:runCommand", "onFailure":"Abort", "timeoutSeconds":7200, "inputs":{ "DocumentName":"AWS-RunPatchBaseline", "Parameters":{ "SnapshotId":"{{SnapshotId}}", "RebootOption":"{{RebootOption}}", "Operation":"{{Operation}}" }, "Targets":[ { "Key":"{{returnPrimaryTagKey.primaryPatchGroupKey}}", "Values":[ "{{returnPrimaryTagValue.primaryPatchGroupValue}}" ] } ], "MaxConcurrency":"10%", "MaxErrors":"10%" }, "nextStep":"returnPrimaryToOriginalState" },
  6. 修補操作完成之後,Emily 想要自動化將與 PrimaryPatchGroupTag 參數中指定之標籤相關聯的目標執行個體恢復到自動化開始之前的相同狀態。她透過再次使用指令碼中第一個動作的輸出,完成此操作。根據目標執行個體的原始狀態,如果執行個體先前處於除了 running 之外的任何狀態,則執行個體會停止。否則,如果執行個體的狀態為 running,則指令碼會繼續迴圈剩餘的執行個體。

    YAML
    - name: returnPrimaryToOriginalState action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 600 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnToOriginalState InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def returnToOriginalState(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: if instanceDict[instance] == 'stopped' or instanceDict[instance] == 'stopping': ec2.stop_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) else: pass nextStep: getSecondaryInstanceState
    JSON
    { "name":"returnPrimaryToOriginalState", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":600, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnToOriginalState", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"getSecondaryInstanceState" },
  7. PrimaryPatchGroupTag 參數中指定之標籤相關聯的執行個體已完成修補操作。現在,Emily 會複製其 Runbook 內容中先前的所有動作,以鎖定與 SecondaryPatchGroupTag 參數中指定標籤相關聯的執行個體。

    YAML
    - name: getSecondaryInstanceState action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: getInstanceStates InputPayload: secondaryTag: '{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def getInstanceStates(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') tag = events['secondaryTag'] tagKey, tagValue = list(tag.items())[0] instanceQuery = ec2.describe_instances( Filters=[ { "Name": "tag:" + tagKey, "Values": [tagValue] }] ) if not instanceQuery['Reservations']: noInstancesForTagString = "No instances found for specified tag." return({ 'noInstancesFound' : noInstancesForTagString }) else: queryResponse = instanceQuery['Reservations'] originalInstanceStates = {} for results in queryResponse: instanceSet = results['Instances'] for instance in instanceSet: instanceId = instance['InstanceId'] originalInstanceStates[instanceId] = instance['State']['Name'] return originalInstanceStates outputs: - Name: originalInstanceStates Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap nextStep: verifySecondaryInstancesRunning - name: verifySecondaryInstancesRunning action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 600 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: verifyInstancesRunning InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def verifyInstancesRunning(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: if instanceDict[instance] == 'stopped': print("The target instance " + instance + " is stopped. The instance will now be started.") ec2.start_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) elif instanceDict[instance] == 'stopping': print("The target instance " + instance + " is stopping. Polling for instance to reach stopped state.") while instanceDict[instance] != 'stopped': poll = ec2.get_waiter('instance_stopped') poll.wait( InstanceIds=[instance] ) ec2.start_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) else: pass nextStep: waitForSecondaryRunningInstances - name: waitForSecondaryRunningInstances action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 300 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: waitForRunningInstances InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def waitForRunningInstances(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: poll = ec2.get_waiter('instance_running') poll.wait( InstanceIds=[instance] ) nextStep: returnSecondaryTagKey - name: returnSecondaryTagKey action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnTagValues InputPayload: secondaryTag: '{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def returnTagValues(events,context): tag = events['secondaryTag'] tagKey = list(tag)[0] stringKey = "tag:" + tagKey return {'tagKey' : stringKey} outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: secondaryPatchGroupKey Selector: $.Payload.tagKey Type: String nextStep: returnSecondaryTagValue - name: returnSecondaryTagValue action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnTagValues InputPayload: secondaryTag: '{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def returnTagValues(events,context): tag = events['secondaryTag'] tagKey = list(tag)[0] tagValue = tag[tagKey] return {'tagValue' : tagValue} outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: secondaryPatchGroupValue Selector: $.Payload.tagValue Type: String nextStep: patchSecondaryInstances - name: patchSecondaryInstances action: 'aws:runCommand' onFailure: Abort timeoutSeconds: 7200 inputs: DocumentName: AWS-RunPatchBaseline Parameters: SnapshotId: '{{SnapshotId}}' RebootOption: '{{RebootOption}}' Operation: '{{Operation}}' Targets: - Key: '{{returnSecondaryTagKey.secondaryPatchGroupKey}}' Values: - '{{returnSecondaryTagValue.secondaryPatchGroupValue}}' MaxConcurrency: 10% MaxErrors: 10% nextStep: returnSecondaryToOriginalState - name: returnSecondaryToOriginalState action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 600 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnToOriginalState InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def returnToOriginalState(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: if instanceDict[instance] == 'stopped' or instanceDict[instance] == 'stopping': ec2.stop_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) else: pass
    JSON
    { "name":"getSecondaryInstanceState", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"getInstanceStates", "InputPayload":{ "secondaryTag":"{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"originalInstanceStates", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" } ], "nextStep":"verifySecondaryInstancesRunning" }, { "name":"verifySecondaryInstancesRunning", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":600, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"verifyInstancesRunning", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"waitForSecondaryRunningInstances" }, { "name":"waitForSecondaryRunningInstances", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":300, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"waitForRunningInstances", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"returnSecondaryTagKey" }, { "name":"returnSecondaryTagKey", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnTagValues", "InputPayload":{ "secondaryTag":"{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"Payload", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" }, { "Name":"secondaryPatchGroupKey", "Selector":"$.Payload.tagKey", "Type":"String" } ], "nextStep":"returnSecondaryTagValue" }, { "name":"returnSecondaryTagValue", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnTagValues", "InputPayload":{ "secondaryTag":"{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"Payload", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" }, { "Name":"secondaryPatchGroupValue", "Selector":"$.Payload.tagValue", "Type":"String" } ], "nextStep":"patchSecondaryInstances" }, { "name":"patchSecondaryInstances", "action":"aws:runCommand", "onFailure":"Abort", "timeoutSeconds":7200, "inputs":{ "DocumentName":"AWS-RunPatchBaseline", "Parameters":{ "SnapshotId":"{{SnapshotId}}", "RebootOption":"{{RebootOption}}", "Operation":"{{Operation}}" }, "Targets":[ { "Key":"{{returnSecondaryTagKey.secondaryPatchGroupKey}}", "Values":[ "{{returnSecondaryTagValue.secondaryPatchGroupValue}}" ] } ], "MaxConcurrency":"10%", "MaxErrors":"10%" }, "nextStep":"returnSecondaryToOriginalState" }, { "name":"returnSecondaryToOriginalState", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":600, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnToOriginalState", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." } } ] }
  8. Emily 檢閱已完成的指令碼式 Runbook 內容,並在與目標執行個體相同的 AWS 帳戶 和 AWS 區域 中建立 Runbook。現在,她已經準備好測試她的 Runbook,以確保自動化能夠依需要操作,然後再將其實作到她的生產環境中。以下是已完成的指令碼式 Runbook 內容。

    YAML
    description: An example of an Automation runbook that patches groups of Amazon EC2 instances in stages. schemaVersion: '0.3' assumeRole: '{{AutomationAssumeRole}}' parameters: AutomationAssumeRole: type: String description: '(Required) The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IAM role that allows Automation to perform the actions on your behalf. If no role is specified, Systems Manager Automation uses your IAM permissions to operate this runbook.' PrimaryPatchGroupTag: type: StringMap description: '(Required) The tag for the primary group of instances you want to patch. Specify a key-value pair. Example: {"key" : "value"}' SecondaryPatchGroupTag: type: StringMap description: '(Required) The tag for the secondary group of instances you want to patch. Specify a key-value pair. Example: {"key" : "value"}' SnapshotId: type: String description: '(Optional) The snapshot ID to use to retrieve a patch baseline snapshot.' default: '' RebootOption: type: String description: '(Optional) Reboot behavior after a patch Install operation. If you choose NoReboot and patches are installed, the instance is marked as non-compliant until a subsequent reboot and scan.' allowedValues: - NoReboot - RebootIfNeeded default: RebootIfNeeded Operation: type: String description: '(Optional) The update or configuration to perform on the instance. The system checks if patches specified in the patch baseline are installed on the instance. The install operation installs patches missing from the baseline.' allowedValues: - Install - Scan default: Install mainSteps: - name: getPrimaryInstanceState action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: getInstanceStates InputPayload: primaryTag: '{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def getInstanceStates(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') tag = events['primaryTag'] tagKey, tagValue = list(tag.items())[0] instanceQuery = ec2.describe_instances( Filters=[ { "Name": "tag:" + tagKey, "Values": [tagValue] }] ) if not instanceQuery['Reservations']: noInstancesForTagString = "No instances found for specified tag." return({ 'noInstancesFound' : noInstancesForTagString }) else: queryResponse = instanceQuery['Reservations'] originalInstanceStates = {} for results in queryResponse: instanceSet = results['Instances'] for instance in instanceSet: instanceId = instance['InstanceId'] originalInstanceStates[instanceId] = instance['State']['Name'] return originalInstanceStates outputs: - Name: originalInstanceStates Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap nextStep: verifyPrimaryInstancesRunning - name: verifyPrimaryInstancesRunning action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 600 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: verifyInstancesRunning InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def verifyInstancesRunning(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: if instanceDict[instance] == 'stopped': print("The target instance " + instance + " is stopped. The instance will now be started.") ec2.start_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) elif instanceDict[instance] == 'stopping': print("The target instance " + instance + " is stopping. Polling for instance to reach stopped state.") while instanceDict[instance] != 'stopped': poll = ec2.get_waiter('instance_stopped') poll.wait( InstanceIds=[instance] ) ec2.start_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) else: pass nextStep: waitForPrimaryRunningInstances - name: waitForPrimaryRunningInstances action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 300 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: waitForRunningInstances InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def waitForRunningInstances(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: poll = ec2.get_waiter('instance_running') poll.wait( InstanceIds=[instance] ) nextStep: returnPrimaryTagKey - name: returnPrimaryTagKey action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnTagValues InputPayload: primaryTag: '{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def returnTagValues(events,context): tag = events['primaryTag'] tagKey = list(tag)[0] stringKey = "tag:" + tagKey return {'tagKey' : stringKey} outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: primaryPatchGroupKey Selector: $.Payload.tagKey Type: String nextStep: returnPrimaryTagValue - name: returnPrimaryTagValue action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnTagValues InputPayload: primaryTag: '{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def returnTagValues(events,context): tag = events['primaryTag'] tagKey = list(tag)[0] tagValue = tag[tagKey] return {'tagValue' : tagValue} outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: primaryPatchGroupValue Selector: $.Payload.tagValue Type: String nextStep: patchPrimaryInstances - name: patchPrimaryInstances action: 'aws:runCommand' onFailure: Abort timeoutSeconds: 7200 inputs: DocumentName: AWS-RunPatchBaseline Parameters: SnapshotId: '{{SnapshotId}}' RebootOption: '{{RebootOption}}' Operation: '{{Operation}}' Targets: - Key: '{{returnPrimaryTagKey.primaryPatchGroupKey}}' Values: - '{{returnPrimaryTagValue.primaryPatchGroupValue}}' MaxConcurrency: 10% MaxErrors: 10% nextStep: returnPrimaryToOriginalState - name: returnPrimaryToOriginalState action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 600 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnToOriginalState InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def returnToOriginalState(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: if instanceDict[instance] == 'stopped' or instanceDict[instance] == 'stopping': ec2.stop_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) else: pass nextStep: getSecondaryInstanceState - name: getSecondaryInstanceState action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: getInstanceStates InputPayload: secondaryTag: '{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def getInstanceStates(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') tag = events['secondaryTag'] tagKey, tagValue = list(tag.items())[0] instanceQuery = ec2.describe_instances( Filters=[ { "Name": "tag:" + tagKey, "Values": [tagValue] }] ) if not instanceQuery['Reservations']: noInstancesForTagString = "No instances found for specified tag." return({ 'noInstancesFound' : noInstancesForTagString }) else: queryResponse = instanceQuery['Reservations'] originalInstanceStates = {} for results in queryResponse: instanceSet = results['Instances'] for instance in instanceSet: instanceId = instance['InstanceId'] originalInstanceStates[instanceId] = instance['State']['Name'] return originalInstanceStates outputs: - Name: originalInstanceStates Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap nextStep: verifySecondaryInstancesRunning - name: verifySecondaryInstancesRunning action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 600 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: verifyInstancesRunning InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def verifyInstancesRunning(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: if instanceDict[instance] == 'stopped': print("The target instance " + instance + " is stopped. The instance will now be started.") ec2.start_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) elif instanceDict[instance] == 'stopping': print("The target instance " + instance + " is stopping. Polling for instance to reach stopped state.") while instanceDict[instance] != 'stopped': poll = ec2.get_waiter('instance_stopped') poll.wait( InstanceIds=[instance] ) ec2.start_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) else: pass nextStep: waitForSecondaryRunningInstances - name: waitForSecondaryRunningInstances action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 300 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: waitForRunningInstances InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def waitForRunningInstances(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: poll = ec2.get_waiter('instance_running') poll.wait( InstanceIds=[instance] ) nextStep: returnSecondaryTagKey - name: returnSecondaryTagKey action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnTagValues InputPayload: secondaryTag: '{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def returnTagValues(events,context): tag = events['secondaryTag'] tagKey = list(tag)[0] stringKey = "tag:" + tagKey return {'tagKey' : stringKey} outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: secondaryPatchGroupKey Selector: $.Payload.tagKey Type: String nextStep: returnSecondaryTagValue - name: returnSecondaryTagValue action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 120 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnTagValues InputPayload: secondaryTag: '{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}' Script: |- def returnTagValues(events,context): tag = events['secondaryTag'] tagKey = list(tag)[0] tagValue = tag[tagKey] return {'tagValue' : tagValue} outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: secondaryPatchGroupValue Selector: $.Payload.tagValue Type: String nextStep: patchSecondaryInstances - name: patchSecondaryInstances action: 'aws:runCommand' onFailure: Abort timeoutSeconds: 7200 inputs: DocumentName: AWS-RunPatchBaseline Parameters: SnapshotId: '{{SnapshotId}}' RebootOption: '{{RebootOption}}' Operation: '{{Operation}}' Targets: - Key: '{{returnSecondaryTagKey.secondaryPatchGroupKey}}' Values: - '{{returnSecondaryTagValue.secondaryPatchGroupValue}}' MaxConcurrency: 10% MaxErrors: 10% nextStep: returnSecondaryToOriginalState - name: returnSecondaryToOriginalState action: 'aws:executeScript' timeoutSeconds: 600 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.7 Handler: returnToOriginalState InputPayload: targetInstances: '{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}' Script: |- def returnToOriginalState(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') instanceDict = events['targetInstances'] for instance in instanceDict: if instanceDict[instance] == 'stopped' or instanceDict[instance] == 'stopping': ec2.stop_instances( InstanceIds=[instance] ) else: pass
    JSON
    { "description":"An example of an Automation runbook that patches groups of Amazon EC2 instances in stages.", "schemaVersion":"0.3", "assumeRole":"{{AutomationAssumeRole}}", "parameters":{ "AutomationAssumeRole":{ "type":"String", "description":"(Required) The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IAM role that allows Automation to perform the actions on your behalf. If no role is specified, Systems Manager Automation uses your IAM permissions to operate this runbook." }, "PrimaryPatchGroupTag":{ "type":"StringMap", "description":"(Required) The tag for the primary group of instances you want to patch. Specify a key-value pair. Example: {\"key\" : \"value\"}" }, "SecondaryPatchGroupTag":{ "type":"StringMap", "description":"(Required) The tag for the secondary group of instances you want to patch. Specify a key-value pair. Example: {\"key\" : \"value\"}" }, "SnapshotId":{ "type":"String", "description":"(Optional) The snapshot ID to use to retrieve a patch baseline snapshot.", "default":"" }, "RebootOption":{ "type":"String", "description":"(Optional) Reboot behavior after a patch Install operation. If you choose NoReboot and patches are installed, the instance is marked as non-compliant until a subsequent reboot and scan.", "allowedValues":[ "NoReboot", "RebootIfNeeded" ], "default":"RebootIfNeeded" }, "Operation":{ "type":"String", "description":"(Optional) The update or configuration to perform on the instance. The system checks if patches specified in the patch baseline are installed on the instance. The install operation installs patches missing from the baseline.", "allowedValues":[ "Install", "Scan" ], "default":"Install" } }, "mainSteps":[ { "name":"getPrimaryInstanceState", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"getInstanceStates", "InputPayload":{ "primaryTag":"{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"originalInstanceStates", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" } ], "nextStep":"verifyPrimaryInstancesRunning" }, { "name":"verifyPrimaryInstancesRunning", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":600, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"verifyInstancesRunning", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"waitForPrimaryRunningInstances" }, { "name":"waitForPrimaryRunningInstances", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":300, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"waitForRunningInstances", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"returnPrimaryTagKey" }, { "name":"returnPrimaryTagKey", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnTagValues", "InputPayload":{ "primaryTag":"{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"Payload", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" }, { "Name":"primaryPatchGroupKey", "Selector":"$.Payload.tagKey", "Type":"String" } ], "nextStep":"returnPrimaryTagValue" }, { "name":"returnPrimaryTagValue", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnTagValues", "InputPayload":{ "primaryTag":"{{PrimaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"Payload", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" }, { "Name":"primaryPatchGroupValue", "Selector":"$.Payload.tagValue", "Type":"String" } ], "nextStep":"patchPrimaryInstances" }, { "name":"patchPrimaryInstances", "action":"aws:runCommand", "onFailure":"Abort", "timeoutSeconds":7200, "inputs":{ "DocumentName":"AWS-RunPatchBaseline", "Parameters":{ "SnapshotId":"{{SnapshotId}}", "RebootOption":"{{RebootOption}}", "Operation":"{{Operation}}" }, "Targets":[ { "Key":"{{returnPrimaryTagKey.primaryPatchGroupKey}}", "Values":[ "{{returnPrimaryTagValue.primaryPatchGroupValue}}" ] } ], "MaxConcurrency":"10%", "MaxErrors":"10%" }, "nextStep":"returnPrimaryToOriginalState" }, { "name":"returnPrimaryToOriginalState", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":600, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnToOriginalState", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getPrimaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"getSecondaryInstanceState" }, { "name":"getSecondaryInstanceState", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"getInstanceStates", "InputPayload":{ "secondaryTag":"{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"originalInstanceStates", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" } ], "nextStep":"verifySecondaryInstancesRunning" }, { "name":"verifySecondaryInstancesRunning", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":600, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"verifyInstancesRunning", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"waitForSecondaryRunningInstances" }, { "name":"waitForSecondaryRunningInstances", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":300, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"waitForRunningInstances", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "nextStep":"returnSecondaryTagKey" }, { "name":"returnSecondaryTagKey", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnTagValues", "InputPayload":{ "secondaryTag":"{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"Payload", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" }, { "Name":"secondaryPatchGroupKey", "Selector":"$.Payload.tagKey", "Type":"String" } ], "nextStep":"returnSecondaryTagValue" }, { "name":"returnSecondaryTagValue", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":120, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnTagValues", "InputPayload":{ "secondaryTag":"{{SecondaryPatchGroupTag}}" }, "Script":"..." }, "outputs":[ { "Name":"Payload", "Selector":"$.Payload", "Type":"StringMap" }, { "Name":"secondaryPatchGroupValue", "Selector":"$.Payload.tagValue", "Type":"String" } ], "nextStep":"patchSecondaryInstances" }, { "name":"patchSecondaryInstances", "action":"aws:runCommand", "onFailure":"Abort", "timeoutSeconds":7200, "inputs":{ "DocumentName":"AWS-RunPatchBaseline", "Parameters":{ "SnapshotId":"{{SnapshotId}}", "RebootOption":"{{RebootOption}}", "Operation":"{{Operation}}" }, "Targets":[ { "Key":"{{returnSecondaryTagKey.secondaryPatchGroupKey}}", "Values":[ "{{returnSecondaryTagValue.secondaryPatchGroupValue}}" ] } ], "MaxConcurrency":"10%", "MaxErrors":"10%" }, "nextStep":"returnSecondaryToOriginalState" }, { "name":"returnSecondaryToOriginalState", "action":"aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds":600, "onFailure":"Abort", "inputs":{ "Runtime":"python3.7", "Handler":"returnToOriginalState", "InputPayload":{ "targetInstances":"{{getSecondaryInstanceState.originalInstanceStates}}" }, "Script":"..." } } ] }

如需此範例中所使用自動化動作的詳細資訊,請參閱 Systems Manager Automation 動作參考