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Amazon Relational Database Service
User Guide (API Version 2014-10-31)

Amazon RDS Maintenance

Periodically, Amazon RDS performs maintenance on Amazon RDS resources. Maintenance most often involves updates to the DB instance's or DB cluster's operating system (OS).

You can choose to manually apply maintenance items at your convenience, or wait for the automatic maintenance process initiated by Amazon RDS during your weekly maintenance window. You can view whether a maintenance update is available for your DB instance or DB cluster by using the RDS console or by using the AWS CLI or Amazon RDS API. If an update is available, you can choose to do one of the following:

  • Defer the maintenance items.

  • Apply the maintenance items immediately.

  • Schedule the maintenance items to start during your next maintenance window.

    Note

    The maintenance window determines when pending operations start, but does not limit the total execution time of these operations. Maintenance operations are not guaranteed to finish before the maintenance window ends, and can continue beyond the specified end time.

Certain maintenance items will be marked as Required in the Maintenance column in the Instances and Clusters views of the Amazon RDS console. These updates cannot be deferred indefinitely. If you choose to defer a required update, you will receive a communication from AWS that notifies you of the time at which the update will be performed on your DB instance. Other updates will be marked as Available. You can defer these maintenance items indefinitely and the update will not be applied to your DB instance or DB cluster.

Maintenance items require that Amazon RDS take your DB instance or DB cluster offline for a short time. Maintenance that require a resource to be offline include scale compute operations, which generally take only a few minutes from start to finish, and required operating system or database patching. Required patching is automatically scheduled only for patches that are related to security and instance reliability. Such patching occurs infrequently (typically once every few months) and seldom requires more than a fraction of your maintenance window.

Multi-AZ Deployments for RDS DB Instances

Running a DB instance as a Multi-AZ deployment can further reduce the impact of a maintenance event, because Amazon RDS will conduct maintenance by following these steps:

  1. Perform maintenance on the standby.

  2. Promote the standby to primary.

  3. Perform maintenance on the old primary, which becomes the new standby.

When you modify the database engine for your DB instance in a Multi-AZ deployment, then Amazon RDS upgrades both the primary and secondary DB instances at the same time. In this case, the database engine for the entire Multi-AZ deployment is shut down during the upgrade.

For more information on Multi-AZ deployments, see High Availability (Multi-AZ).

An Amazon Aurora DB cluster spans multiple Availability Zones (AZs) by default and maintenance is performed on all instances in an Aurora DB cluster during the cluster maintenance window.

Amazon RDS Maintenance Window

Every DB instance and DB cluster has a weekly maintenance window during which any system changes are applied. You can think of the maintenance window as an opportunity to control when modifications and software patching occur, in the event either are requested or required. If a maintenance event is scheduled for a given week, it is initiated during the 30-minute maintenance window you identify. Most maintenance events also complete during the 30-minute maintenance window, although larger maintenance events may take more than 30 minutes to complete.

The 30-minute maintenance window is selected at random from an 8-hour block of time per region. If you don't specify a preferred maintenance window when you create the DB instance or DB cluster, then Amazon RDS assigns a 30-minute maintenance window on a randomly selected day of the week.

RDS will consume some of the resources on your DB instance or DB cluster while maintenance is being applied. You might observe a minimal effect on performance. For a DB instance, on rare occasions, a Multi-AZ failover might be required for a maintenance update to complete.

Following, you can find the time blocks for each region from which default maintenance windows are assigned.

Region Time Block
US East (N. Virginia) Region 03:00–11:00 UTC
US East (Ohio) Region 03:00–11:00 UTC
US West (N. California) Region 06:00–14:00 UTC
US West (Oregon) Region 06:00–14:00 UTC
Asia Pacific (Mumbai) Region 17:30–01:30 UTC
Asia Pacific (Seoul) Region 13:00–21:00 UTC
Asia Pacific (Singapore) Region 14:00–22:00 UTC
Asia Pacific (Sydney) Region 12:00–20:00 UTC
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) Region 13:00–21:00 UTC
Canada (Central) Region 06:29–14:29 UTC
EU (Frankfurt) Region 23:00–07:00 UTC
EU (Ireland) Region 22:00–06:00 UTC
EU (London) Region 06:00–14:00 UTC
South America (São Paulo) Region 00:00–08:00 UTC
AWS GovCloud (US) 06:00–14:00 UTC

Adjusting the Preferred DB Instance Maintenance Window

The maintenance window should fall at the time of lowest usage and thus might need modification from time to time. Your DB instance will only be unavailable during this time if the system changes, such as a scale storage operation or a change in DB instance class, are being applied and require an outage, and only for the minimum amount of time required to make the necessary changes.

Note

For upgrades to the database engine, Amazon Aurora manages the preferred maintenance window for a DB cluster and not individual instances. For information on adjusting the maintenance window for Aurora, see Adjusting the Preferred DB Cluster Maintenance Window.

In the following example, you adjust the preferred maintenance window for a DB instance.

For the purpose of this example, we assume that the DB instance named mydbinstance exists and has a preferred maintenance window of "Sun:05:00-Sun:06:00" UTC.

AWS Management Console

To adjust the preferred maintenance window

  1. Launch the AWS Management Console.

    1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

    2. Click on the DB Instances link in the Navigation panel on the left side of the console display.

      The My Instances list appears.

    3. Right-click on the DB Instance in the My DB Instances list and select Modify from the drop-down menu.

      The Modify DB Instance window appears.

  2. Type the maintenance window into the Maintenance Window text box using the format "day:hour:minute-day:hour:minute".

    Note

    The maintenance window and the backup window for the DB instance cannot overlap. If you enter a value for the maintenance window that overlaps the backup window, an error message appears.

  3. Click the OK button.

    Changes to the maintenance window take effect immediately.

CLI

To adjust the preferred maintenance window, use the AWS CLI modify-db-instance command with the following parameters:

  • --db-instance-identifier

  • --preferred-maintenance-window

Example

The following code example sets the maintenance window to Tuesdays from 4:00-4:30AM UTC.

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

Copy
aws rds modify-db-instance \ --db-instance-identifier mydbinstance \ --preferred-maintenance-window Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

For Windows:

Copy
aws rds modify-db-instance ^ --db-instance-identifier mydbinstance ^ --preferred-maintenance-window Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

API

To adjust the preferred maintenance window, use the Amazon RDS API ModifyDBInstance action with the following parameters:

  • DBInstanceIdentifier = mydbinstance

  • PreferredMaintenanceWindow = Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

Example

The following code example sets the maintenance window to Tuesdays from 4:00-4:30AM UTC.

Copy
https://rds.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/ ?Action=ModifyDBInstance &DBInstanceIdentifier=mydbinstance &PreferredMaintenanceWindow=Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30 &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256 &SignatureVersion=4 &Version=2014-09-01 &X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 &X-Amz-Credential=AKIADQKE4SARGYLE/20140425/us-east-1/rds/aws4_request &X-Amz-Date=20140425T192732Z &X-Amz-SignedHeaders=content-type;host;user-agent;x-amz-content-sha256;x-amz-date &X-Amz-Signature=1dc9dd716f4855e9bdf188c70f1cf9f6251b070b68b81103b59ec70c3e7854b3

Adjusting the Preferred DB Cluster Maintenance Window

The Aurora DB cluster maintenance window should fall at the time of lowest usage and thus might need modification from time to time. Your DB cluster will be unavailable during this time only if the updates that are being applied require an outage. The outage will be for the minimum amount of time required to make the necessary updates.

AWS Management Console

To adjust the preferred DB cluster maintenance window

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

  2. Choose Clusters on the left of the console.

  3. Choose the DB cluster that you want to adjust the preferred maintenance window for.

  4. Choose Modify Cluster.

  5. In the Maintenance section of the console, set the Start Day, Start Time, and Duration to the values for your new, preferred maintenance window.

  6. Choose Apply Immediately, and then choose Continue.

  7. Verify your updated values, and then choose Modify Cluster.

CLI

To adjust the preferred DB cluster maintenance window, use the AWS CLI modify-db-cluster command with the following parameters:

  • --db-cluster-identifier

  • --preferred-maintenance-window

Example

The following code example sets the maintenance window to Tuesdays from 4:00-4:30AM UTC.

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

Copy
aws rds modify-db-cluster \ --db-cluster-identifier my-cluster \ --preferred-maintenance-window Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

For Windows:

Copy
aws rds modify-db-cluster ^ --db-cluster-identifier my-cluster ^ --preferred-maintenance-window Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

API

To adjust the preferred DB cluster maintenance window, use the Amazon RDS API ModifyDBCluster action with the following parameters:

  • DBClusterIdentifier = my-cluster

  • PreferredMaintenanceWindow = Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30

Example

The following code example sets the maintenance window to Tuesdays from 4:00-4:30AM UTC.

Copy
https://rds.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/ ?Action=ModifyDBCluster &DBClusterIdentifier=my-cluster &PreferredMaintenanceWindow=Tue:04:00-Tue:04:30 &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256 &SignatureVersion=4 &Version=2014-10-31 &X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 &X-Amz-Credential=AKIADQKE4SARGYLE/20140725/us-east-1/rds/aws4_request &X-Amz-Date=20161017T161457Z &X-Amz-SignedHeaders=content-type;host;user-agent;x-amz-content-sha256;x-amz-date &X-Amz-Signature=d6d1c65c2e94f5800ab411a3f7336625820b103713b6c063430900514e21d784

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