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AWS CloudFormation
ユーザーガイド (API Version 2010-05-15)

AWS CloudFormation による Amazon EC2 へのアプリケーションのデプロイ

AWS CloudFormation を使用して、Amazon EC2 インスタンスにアプリケーションを自動的にインストールし、設定および起動することができます。これにより、インスタンスへ直接接続することなく、簡単にデプロイを複製し、既存のインストールを更新できるので、多くの時間と労力を節約することができます。

AWS CloudFormation には、cloud-init に基づくヘルパースクリプトのセット (cfn-init、cfn-signal、cfn-get-metadata、および cfn-hup) が含まれています。同じテンプレートに存在する Amazon EC2 インスタンスにアプリケーションをインストールし、設定および更新するには、AWS CloudFormation からこれらのヘルパースクリプトを呼び出します。

以降のウォークスルーでは、cfn ヘルパースクリプトを使用して LAMP スタックを起動し、Apache、MySQL、および PHP をインストール、構成および起動するためのテンプレートを作成する方法について説明します。最初は、Amazon Linux を実行する基本的な Amazon EC2 インスタンスを設定するシンプルなテンプレートを取り上げます。次に、テンプレートに機能を追加して完全な LAMP スタックを完成させます。

AWS CloudFormation を使用してアプリケーションをデプロイするためのその他の方法や例については、記事「AWS CloudFormation を介してアプリケーションをブートストラップ」を参照してください。

基本的な Amazon EC2 インスタンス

最初に取り上げる基本的なテンプレートでは、ポート 22 での SSH トラフィックとポート 80 での HTTP トラフィックを許可するセキュリティグループを含む単独の Amazon EC2 インスタンスを定義します。以下に例を挙げます。

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation sample template LAMP_Single_Instance: Create a LAMP stack using a single EC2 instance and a local MySQL database for storage. This template demonstrates using the AWS CloudFormation bootstrap scripts to install the packages and files necessary to deploy the Apache web server, PHP, and MySQL at instance launch time. **WARNING** This template creates an Amazon EC2 instance. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack from this template.", "Parameters" : { "KeyName": { "Description" : "Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to the instance", "Type": "AWS::EC2::KeyPair::KeyName", "ConstraintDescription" : "Can contain only ASCII characters." }, "InstanceType" : { "Description" : "WebServer EC2 instance type", "Type" : "String", "Default" : "m1.small", "AllowedValues" : [ "t1.micro", "t2.micro", "t2.small", "t2.medium", "m1.small", "m1.medium", "m1.large", "m1.xlarge", "m2.xlarge", "m2.2xlarge", "m2.4xlarge", "m3.medium", "m3.large", "m3.xlarge", "m3.2xlarge", "c1.medium", "c1.xlarge", "c3.large", "c3.xlarge", "c3.2xlarge", "c3.4xlarge", "c3.8xlarge", "g2.2xlarge", "r3.large", "r3.xlarge", "r3.2xlarge", "r3.4xlarge", "r3.8xlarge", "i2.xlarge", "i2.2xlarge", "i2.4xlarge", "i2.8xlarge", "hi1.4xlarge", "hs1.8xlarge", "cr1.8xlarge", "cc2.8xlarge", "cg1.4xlarge"], "ConstraintDescription" : "Must be a valid EC2 instance type" }, "SSHLocation" : { "Description" : "The IP address range that can be used to SSH to the EC2 instances", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "9", "MaxLength": "18", "Default": "0.0.0.0/0", "AllowedPattern": "(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})/(\\d{1,2})", "ConstraintDescription": "Must be a valid IP CIDR range of the form x.x.x.x/x" } }, "Mappings" : { "AWSInstanceType2Arch" : { "t1.micro" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "t2.micro" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "t2.small" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "t2.medium" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m1.small" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.medium" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.large" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m3.medium" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c1.medium" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "c1.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "c3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "g2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVMG2" }, "r3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "hi1.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "hs1.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "cr1.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "cc2.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" } }, "AWSRegionArch2AMI" : { "us-east-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-50842d38", "HVM64" : "ami-08842d60", "HVMG2" : "ami-3a329952" }, "us-west-2" : { "PV64" : "ami-af86c69f", "HVM64" : "ami-8786c6b7", "HVMG2" : "ami-47296a77" }, "us-west-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-c7a8a182", "HVM64" : "ami-cfa8a18a", "HVMG2" : "ami-331b1376" }, "eu-west-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-aa8f28dd", "HVM64" : "ami-748e2903", "HVMG2" : "ami-00913777" }, "ap-southeast-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-20e1c572", "HVM64" : "ami-d6e1c584", "HVMG2" : "ami-fabe9aa8" }, "ap-northeast-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-21072820", "HVM64" : "ami-35072834", "HVMG2" : "ami-5dd1ff5c" }, "ap-southeast-2" : { "PV64" : "ami-8b4724b1", "HVM64" : "ami-fd4724c7", "HVMG2" : "ami-e98ae9d3" }, "sa-east-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-9d6cc680", "HVM64" : "ami-956cc688", "HVMG2" : "NOT_SUPPORTED" }, "cn-north-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-a857c591", "HVM64" : "ami-ac57c595", "HVMG2" : "NOT_SUPPORTED" }, "eu-central-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-a03503bd", "HVM64" : "ami-b43503a9", "HVMG2" : "ami-b03503ad" } } }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" } } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup", "Properties" : { "GroupDescription" : "Enable HTTP access via port 80", "SecurityGroupIngress" : [ {"IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : "80", "ToPort" : "80", "CidrIp" : "0.0.0.0/0"}, {"IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : "22", "ToPort" : "22", "CidrIp" : { "Ref" : "SSHLocation"}} ] } } }, "Outputs" : { "WebsiteURL" : { "Description" : "URL for newly created LAMP stack", "Value" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["http://", { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "WebServerInstance", "PublicDnsName" ]}]] } } } }

Amazon EC2 インスタンスおよびセキュリティグループに加えて、インスタンスタイプ、SSH アクセスに使用する Amazon EC2 キーペア、およびインスタンスへの SSH 接続に使用できる IP アドレス範囲を指定するための 3 つの入力パラメーターを作成します。Mapping セクションでは、AWS CloudFormation がスタックのリージョンと Amazon EC2 インスタンスタイプに対して正しい AMI ID を使用するように指定できます。最後に、ウェブサーバーのパブリック URL が出力セクションに出力されます。

LAMP インストール

自動的に Apache、MySQL、PHP をインストールするには、上記の基本的な Amazon EC2 テンプレートを土台にします。アプリケーションをインストールするには、UserData プロパティと Metadata プロパティを追加します。ただし、アプリケーションの設定や起動が行われるのは、次のセクションに到達してからです。

以下の例では、簡潔にするため、省略符号 (...) が付いているセクションは省略されています。テンプレートに追加された部分は、赤い斜体文字で示されています。

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template LAMP_Install_Only: ...", "Parameters" : { "KeyName" : { ... }, "InstanceType" : { ... }, "Mappings" : { ... }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { "Comment1" : "Configure the bootstrap helpers to install the Apache Web Server and PHP", "Comment2" : "Save website content to /var/www/html/index.php", "AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : { "configSets" : { "Install" : [ "Install" ] }, "Install" : { "packages" : { "yum" : { "mysql" : [], "mysql-server" : [], "mysql-libs" : [], "httpd" : [], "php" : [], "php-mysql" : [] } }, "files" : { "/var/www/html/index.php" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : [ "", [ "<html>\n", " <head>\n", " <title>AWS CloudFormation PHP Sample</title>\n", " <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1\">\n", " </head>\n", " <body>\n", " <h1>Welcome to the AWS CloudFormation PHP Sample</h1>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " // Print out the current data and time\n", " print \"The Current Date and Time is: <br/>\";\n", " print date(\"g:i A l, F j Y.\");\n", " ?>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " // Setup a handle for CURL\n", " $curl_handle=curl_init();\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT,2);\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1);\n", " // Get the hostname of the instance from the instance metadata\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_URL,'http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-hostname');\n", " $hostname = curl_exec($curl_handle);\n", " if (empty($hostname))\n", " {\n", " print \"Sorry, for some reason, we got no hostname back <br />\";\n", " }\n", " else\n", " {\n", " print \"Server = \" . $hostname . \"<br />\";\n", " }\n", " // Get the instance-id of the instance from the instance metadata\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_URL,'http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/instance-id');\n", " $instanceid = curl_exec($curl_handle);\n", " if (empty($instanceid))\n", " {\n", " print \"Sorry, for some reason, we got no instance id back <br />\";\n", " }\n", " else\n", " {\n", " print \"EC2 instance-id = \" . $instanceid . \"<br />\";\n", " }\n", " $Database = \"", {"Ref" : "DBName"}, "\";\n", " $DBUser = \"", {"Ref" : "DBUsername"}, "\";\n", " $DBPassword = \"", {"Ref" : "DBPassword"}, "\";\n", " print \"Database = \" . $Database . \"<br />\";\n", " $dbconnection = mysql_connect($Database, $DBUser, $DBPassword)\n", " or die(\"Could not connect: \" . ysql_error());\n", " print (\"Connected to $Database successfully\");\n", " mysql_close($dbconnection);\n", " ?>\n", " <h2>PHP Information</h2>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " phpinfo();\n", " ?>\n", " </body>\n", "</html>\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000600", "owner" : "apache", "group" : "apache" }, "services" : { "sysvinit" : { "httpd" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" } } } } }, "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "#!/bin/bash -xe\n", "yum install -y aws-cfn-bootstrap\n", "# Install the files and packages from the metadata\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init -v ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ", " --configsets Install ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}} } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { ... } }, "Outputs" : { ... } }

UserData プロパティにより、2 つのシェルコマンドが実行され、AWS CloudFormation ヘルパースクリプトがインストールされた後、cfn-init ヘルパースクリプトが実行されます。ヘルパースクリプトは定期的に更新されるため、yum install -y aws-cfn-bootstrap コマンドを実行することで、確実に最新のヘルパースクリプトを取得できます。cfn-init を実行すると、AWS::CloudFormation::Init リソースからメタデータが読み込まれます。これは、cfn-init によって実行されるアクションが記述されたものです。たとえば、cfn-init および AWS::CloudFormation::Init を使用して、パッケージのインストール、ディスクへのファイルの書き込み、またはサービスの起動を実行できます。ここでは、cfn-init によって、リストされているパッケージ (httpd、mysql、php) がインストールされ、/var/www/html/index.php ファイル (サンプルの PHP アプリケーション) が作成されます。

LAMP 構成

Linux、Apache、MySQL、PHP をインストールするテンプレートを作成したので、Apache、MySQL、PHP を自動的に設定および実行するようにテンプレートを拡張する必要があります。以下の例は、Parameters セクション、AWS::CloudFormation::Init リソース、UserData プロパティを拡張して設定を完了します。前出のテンプレートと同様、簡潔にするため、省略符号 (...) が付いているセクションは省略されています。テンプレートに追加された部分は、赤い斜体文字で示されています。

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template LAMP_Single_Instance: Create a LAMP stack using a single EC2 instance and a local MySQL database for storage. This template demonstrates using the AWS CloudFormation bootstrap scripts to install the packages and files necessary to deploy the Apache web server, PHP and MySQL at instance launch time. **WARNING** This template creates an Amazon EC2 instance. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack from this template.", "Parameters" : { "KeyName" : { ... }, "DBName": { "Default": "MyDatabase", "Description" : "MySQL database name", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "64", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBUsername": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Username for MySQL database access", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "16", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Password for MySQL database access", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBRootPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Root password for MySQL", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "InstanceType" : { ... } }, "Mappings" : { ... }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { "Comment1" : "Configure the bootstrap helpers to install the Apache Web Server and PHP", "Comment2" : "Save website content to /var/www/html/index.php", "AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : { "configSets" : { "InstallAndRun" : [ "Install", "Configure" ] }, "Install" : { "packages" : { "yum" : { "mysql" : [], "mysql-server" : [], "mysql-libs" : [], "httpd" : [], "php" : [], "php-mysql" : [] } }, "files" : { "/var/www/html/index.php" : { "content" : { ... }, "mode" : "000600", "owner" : "apache", "group" : "apache" }, "/tmp/setup.mysql" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "CREATE DATABASE ", { "Ref" : "DBName" }, ";\n", "GRANT ALL ON ", { "Ref" : "DBName" }, ".* TO '", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, "'@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '", { "Ref" : "DBPassword" }, "';\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000400", "owner" : "root", "group" : "root" }, "/etc/cfn/cfn-hup.conf" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "[main]\n", "stack=", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackId" }, "\n", "region=", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000400", "owner" : "root", "group" : "root" }, "/etc/cfn/hooks.d/cfn-auto-reloader.conf" : { "content": { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "[cfn-auto-reloader-hook]\n", "triggers=post.update\n", "path=Resources.WebServerInstance.Metadata.AWS::CloudFormation::Init\n", "action=/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init -v ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ", " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n", "runas=root\n" ]]} } }, }, "services" : { "sysvinit" : { "mysqld" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" }, "httpd" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" }, "cfn-hup" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true", "files" : ["/etc/cfn/cfn-hup.conf", "/etc/cfn/hooks.d/cfn-auto-reloader.conf"]} } } }, "Configure" : { "commands" : { "01_set_mysql_root_password" : { "command" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["mysqladmin -u root password '", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "'"]]}, "test" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["$(mysql ", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, " -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null); (( $? != 0 ))"]]} }, "02_create_database" : { "command" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["mysql -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' < /tmp/setup.mysql"]]}, "test" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["$(mysql ", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, " -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null); (( $? != 0 ))"]]} } } } } }, "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "#!/bin/bash -xe\n", "yum install -y aws-cfn-bootstrap\n", "# Install the files and packages from the metadata\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ",^M " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}} } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { ... } }, "Outputs" : { ... } }

この例では、データベース名、ユーザー名、パスワード、ルートパスワードなど、MySQL データベースを設定するための情報を取得するために、パラメーターが追加されています。これらのパラメーターには、AWS CloudFormation によってスタックの作成が開始される前に不適切にフォーマットされた値を検出する制約が含まれています。

AWS::CloudFormation::Init リソースには、データベース名、ユーザー名、およびパスワードを含む MySQL セットアップファイルを追加しました。この例では、さらに services プロパティを追加して、httpd および mysqld サービスが実行され (ensureRunningtrue に設定)、インスタンスが再起動された場合にはサービスが再開されるように (enabledtrue に設定) します。また、cfn-hup ヘルパースクリプトも含めることもお勧めします。これにより、スタックテンプレートを更新することで、実行中のインスタンスの設定を更新できるからです。たとえば、サンプル PHP アプリケーションを変更してから、スタックの更新を実行することで、変更をデプロイすることができます。

この例では、インストールの完了後に MySQL コマンドを実行するために、コマンド実行用の別の設定セットを追加しています。設定セットは、特定の順序で実行しなければならない一連の作業がある場合に役立ちます。この例では、最初に Installation 設定セットを実行してから、Configure 設定セットを実行します。Configure 設定セットはデータベースのルートパスワードを指定してから、データベースを作成します。コマンドセクションのコマンドはコマンド名によってアルファベット順に処理されるので、この例では、各コマンド名の先頭に実行順序を示す番号を追加しています。

CreationPolicy 属性

最後に、すべてのスタックリソースが作成された後ではなく、すべてのサービス (Apache や MySQL など) が実行された後で初めて、AWS CloudFormation に対してスタックの作成を完了するように指示する方法が必要になります。つまり、前のセクションのテンプレートを使用してスタックを起動すると、AWS CloudFormation はすべてのリソースを正常に作成した後で、スタックのステータスを CREATE_COMPLETE に設定します。ただし、1 つ以上のサービスが起動されなかった場合でも、AWS CloudFormation はスタックのステータスを CREATE_COMPLETE に設定します。すべてのサービスが正常に起動されてから初めてステータスを CREATE_COMPLETE に変更させるには、インスタンスに CreationPolicy 属性を追加します。この属性により、AWS CloudFormation が必要な数の成功シグナルを受け取るか、タイムアウト期間が経過するまで、インスタンスのステータスは CREATE_IN_PROGRESS のままになるので、インスタンスが正常に作成されるタイミングを制御できます。

以下の例では、Amazon EC2 インスタンスに作成ポリシーが追加されています。これにより、cfn-init はスタックの作成が完了する前に LAMP のインストールと設定を完了させます。この例では、作成ポリシーと同時に cfn-signal ヘルパースクリプトを実行し、すべてのアプリケーションがインストールおよび設定された場合に AWS CloudFormation がシグナルを受け取るようにします。

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template LAMP_Single_Instance: ...", "Parameters" : { ... }, "Mappings" : { ... }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { ... }, "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "#!/bin/bash -xe\n", "yum update aws-cfn-bootstrap\n", "# Install the files and packages from the metadata\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ",^M " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n", "# Signal the status from cfn-init\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-signal -e $? ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, "         --resource WebServerInstance ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}} }, "CreationPolicy" : { "ResourceSignal" : { "Timeout" : "PT5M" } } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { ... } }, "Outputs" : { "WebsiteURL" : { ... } } }

作成ポリシーの属性には ISO 8601 の形式を使用して、5 分のタイムアウト期間を定義します。また、設定完了を待機しているインスタンスは 1 つだけであるため、待機する成功シグナル数はデフォルトの 1 です。

テンプレートの UserData プロパティでは cfn-signal スクリプトが実行され、すべてのサービスが正常に設定および起動された場合には、終了コードに基づいて成功シグナルが送信されるようになっています。cfn-signal スクリプトを使用する際には、シグナル対象のスタック IDまたはスタック名、およびリソースの論理 ID を指定する必要があります。設定が失敗したかタイムアウト期間を超えると、cfn-signal は失敗シグナルを送信し、リソースの作成が失敗したことになります。

最終的に完成したテンプレートを以下に示します。テンプレートは、次の場所でも確認できます。

https://s3.amazonaws.com/cloudformation-templates-us-east-1/LAMP_Single_Instance.template

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template LAMP_Single_Instance: Create a LAMP stack using a single EC2 instance and a local MySQL database for storage. This template demonstrates using the AWS CloudFormation bootstrap scripts to install the packages and files necessary to deploy the Apache web server, PHP and MySQL at instance launch time. **WARNING** This template creates an Amazon EC2 instance. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack from this template.", "Parameters" : { "KeyName": { "Description" : "Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to the instance", "Type": "AWS::EC2::KeyPair::KeyName", "ConstraintDescription" : "Can contain only ASCII characters." }, "DBName": { "Default": "MyDatabase", "Description" : "MySQL database name", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "64", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBUsername": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "User name for MySQL database access", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "16", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Password for MySQL database access", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBRootPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Root password for MySQL", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "InstanceType" : { "Description" : "WebServer EC2 instance type", "Type" : "String", "Default" : "m1.small", "AllowedValues" : [ "t1.micro", "t2.micro", "t2.small", "t2.medium", "m1.small", "m1.medium", "m1.large", "m1.xlarge", "m2.xlarge", "m2.2xlarge", "m2.4xlarge", "m3.medium", "m3.large", "m3.xlarge", "m3.2xlarge", "c1.medium", "c1.xlarge", "c3.large", "c3.xlarge", "c3.2xlarge", "c3.4xlarge", "c3.8xlarge", "g2.2xlarge", "r3.large", "r3.xlarge", "r3.2xlarge", "r3.4xlarge", "r3.8xlarge", "i2.xlarge", "i2.2xlarge", "i2.4xlarge", "i2.8xlarge", "hi1.4xlarge", "hs1.8xlarge", "cr1.8xlarge", "cc2.8xlarge", "cg1.4xlarge"], "ConstraintDescription" : "Must be a valid EC2 instance type" }, "SSHLocation" : { "Description" : "The IP address range that can be used to SSH to the EC2 instances", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "9", "MaxLength": "18", "Default": "0.0.0.0/0", "AllowedPattern": "(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})/(\\d{1,2})", "ConstraintDescription": "Must be a valid IP CIDR range of the form x.x.x.x/x" } }, "Mappings" : { "AWSInstanceType2Arch" : { "t1.micro" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "t2.micro" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "t2.small" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "t2.medium" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m1.small" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.medium" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.large" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m3.medium" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c1.medium" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "c1.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "c3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "g2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVMG2" }, "r3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "hi1.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "hs1.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "cr1.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "cc2.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" } }, "AWSRegionArch2AMI" : { "us-east-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-50842d38", "HVM64" : "ami-08842d60", "HVMG2" : "ami-3a329952" }, "us-west-2" : { "PV64" : "ami-af86c69f", "HVM64" : "ami-8786c6b7", "HVMG2" : "ami-47296a77" }, "us-west-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-c7a8a182", "HVM64" : "ami-cfa8a18a", "HVMG2" : "ami-331b1376" }, "eu-west-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-aa8f28dd", "HVM64" : "ami-748e2903", "HVMG2" : "ami-00913777" }, "ap-southeast-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-20e1c572", "HVM64" : "ami-d6e1c584", "HVMG2" : "ami-fabe9aa8" }, "ap-northeast-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-21072820", "HVM64" : "ami-35072834", "HVMG2" : "ami-5dd1ff5c" }, "ap-southeast-2" : { "PV64" : "ami-8b4724b1", "HVM64" : "ami-fd4724c7", "HVMG2" : "ami-e98ae9d3" }, "sa-east-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-9d6cc680", "HVM64" : "ami-956cc688", "HVMG2" : "NOT_SUPPORTED" }, "cn-north-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-a857c591", "HVM64" : "ami-ac57c595", "HVMG2" : "NOT_SUPPORTED" }, "eu-central-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-a03503bd", "HVM64" : "ami-b43503a9", "HVMG2" : "ami-b03503ad" } } }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { "AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : { "configSets" : { "InstallAndRun" : [ "Install", "Configure" ] }, "Install" : { "packages" : { "yum" : { "mysql" : [], "mysql-server" : [], "mysql-libs" : [], "httpd" : [], "php" : [], "php-mysql" : [] } }, "files" : { "/var/www/html/index.php" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : [ "", [ "<html>\n", " <head>\n", " <title>AWS CloudFormation PHP Sample</title>\n", " <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1\">\n", " </head>\n", " <body>\n", " <h1>Welcome to the AWS CloudFormation PHP Sample</h1>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " // Print out the current data and time\n", " print \"The Current Date and Time is: <br/>\";\n", " print date(\"g:i A l, F j Y.\");\n", " ?>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " // Setup a handle for CURL\n", " $curl_handle=curl_init();\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT,2);\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1);\n", " // Get the hostname of the intance from the instance metadata\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_URL,'http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-hostname');\n", " $hostname = curl_exec($curl_handle);\n", " if (empty($hostname))\n", " {\n", " print \"Sorry, for some reason, we got no hostname back <br />\";\n", " }\n", " else\n", " {\n", " print \"Server = \" . $hostname . \"<br />\";\n", " }\n", " // Get the instance-id of the intance from the instance metadata\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_URL,'http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/instance-id');\n", " $instanceid = curl_exec($curl_handle);\n", " if (empty($instanceid))\n", " {\n", " print \"Sorry, for some reason, we got no instance id back <br />\";\n", " }\n", " else\n", " {\n", " print \"EC2 instance-id = \" . $instanceid . \"<br />\";\n", " }\n", " $Database = \"", {"Ref" : "DBName"}, "\";\n", " $DBUser = \"", {"Ref" : "DBUsername"}, "\";\n", " $DBPassword = \"", {"Ref" : "DBPassword"}, "\";\n", " print \"Database = \" . $Database . \"<br />\";\n", " $dbconnection = mysql_connect($Database, $DBUser, $DBPassword)\n", " or die(\"Could not connect: \" . ysql_error());\n", " print (\"Connected to $Database successfully\");\n", " mysql_close($dbconnection);\n", " ?>\n", " <h2>PHP Information</h2>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " phpinfo();\n", " ?>\n", " </body>\n", "</html>\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000600", "owner" : "apache", "group" : "apache" }, "/tmp/setup.mysql" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "CREATE DATABASE ", { "Ref" : "DBName" }, ";\n", "GRANT ALL ON ", { "Ref" : "DBName" }, ".* TO '", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, "'@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '", { "Ref" : "DBPassword" }, "';\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000400", "owner" : "root", "group" : "root" }, "/etc/cfn/cfn-hup.conf" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "[main]\n", "stack=", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackId" }, "\n", "region=", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000400", "owner" : "root", "group" : "root" }, "/etc/cfn/hooks.d/cfn-auto-reloader.conf" : { "content": { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "[cfn-auto-reloader-hook]\n", "triggers=post.update\n", "path=Resources.WebServerInstance.Metadata.AWS::CloudFormation::Init\n", "action=/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init -v ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ", " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n", "runas=root\n" ]]} } }, "services" : { "sysvinit" : { "mysqld" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" }, "httpd" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" }, "cfn-hup" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true", "files" : ["/etc/cfn/cfn-hup.conf", "/etc/cfn/hooks.d/cfn-auto-reloader.conf"]} } } }, "Configure" : { "commands" : { "01_set_mysql_root_password" : { "command" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["mysqladmin -u root password '", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "'"]]}, "test" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["$(mysql ", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, " -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null); (( $? != 0 ))"]]} }, "02_create_database" : { "command" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["mysql -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' < /tmp/setup.mysql"]]}, "test" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["$(mysql ", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, " -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null); (( $? != 0 ))"]]} } } } } }, "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "#!/bin/bash -xe\n", "yum install -y aws-cfn-bootstrap\n", "# Install the files and packages from the metadata\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init -v ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ", " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n", "# Signal the status from cfn-init\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-signal -e $? ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, "         --resource WebServerInstance ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}} }, "CreationPolicy" : { "ResourceSignal" : { "Timeout" : "PT5M" } } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup", "Properties" : { "GroupDescription" : "Enable HTTP access via port 80", "SecurityGroupIngress" : [ {"IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : "80", "ToPort" : "80", "CidrIp" : "0.0.0.0/0"}, {"IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : "22", "ToPort" : "22", "CidrIp" : { "Ref" : "SSHLocation"}} ] } } }, "Outputs" : { "WebsiteURL" : { "Description" : "URL for newly created LAMP stack", "Value" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["http://", { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "WebServerInstance", "PublicDnsName" ]}]] } } } }