Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud
User Guide for Linux Instances

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Amazon EBS–Optimized Instances

An Amazon EBS–optimized instance uses an optimized configuration stack and provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O. This optimization provides the best performance for your EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O and other traffic from your instance.

EBS–optimized instances deliver dedicated bandwidth to Amazon EBS, with options between 425 Mib/s and 14,000 Mib/s, depending on the instance type you use. When attached to an EBS–optimized instance, General Purpose SSD (gp2) volumes are designed to deliver their baseline and burst performance 99% of the time, and Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) volumes are designed to deliver their provisioned performance 99.9% of the time. Both Throughput Optimized HDD (st1) and Cold HDD (sc1) guarantee performance consistency of 90% of burst throughput 99% of the time. Non-compliant periods are approximately uniformly distributed, targeting 99% of expected total throughput each hour. For more information, see Amazon EBS Volume Types.

Supported Instance Types

The following tables show which instance types support EBS optimization. They include the dedicated bandwidth to Amazon EBS, the typical maximum aggregate throughput that can be achieved on that connection with a streaming read workload and 128 KiB I/O size, and the maximum IOPS the instance can support if you are using a 16 KiB I/O size. Choose an EBS–optimized instance that provides more dedicated Amazon EBS throughput than your application needs; otherwise, the connection between Amazon EBS and Amazon EC2 can become a performance bottleneck.

EBS Optimized By Default

The following table lists the instance types that support EBS optimization and EBS optimization is enabled by default. There is no need to enable EBS optimization and no effect if you disable EBS optimization.

Instance type Maximum bandwidth (Mib/s) Maximum throughput (MiB/s, 128 KiB I/O) Maximum IOPS (16 KiB I/O)
a1.medium 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.large 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.2xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
c4.large 500 62.5 4,000
c4.xlarge 750 93.75 6,000
c4.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
c4.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
c4.8xlarge 4,000 500 32,000
c5.large * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5.9xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
c5.12xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
c5.18xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
c5.24xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
c5.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
c5d.large * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5d.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5d.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5d.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5d.9xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
c5d.18xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
c5n.large * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5n.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5n.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5n.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
c5n.9xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
c5n.18xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
c5n.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
d2.xlarge 750 93.75 6,000
d2.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
d2.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
d2.8xlarge 4,000 500 32,000
f1.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
f1.4xlarge 3,500 400 44,000
f1.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 75,000
g3s.xlarge 850 100 5,000
g3.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
g3.8xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
g3.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
h1.2xlarge 1,750 218.75 12,000
h1.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
h1.8xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
h1.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
i3.large 425 53.13 3000
i3.xlarge 850 106.25 6000
i3.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
i3.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 16,000
i3.8xlarge 7,000 875 32,500
i3.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 65,000
i3.metal 14,000 1,750 65,000
i3en.large * 3,500 437.5 20,000
i3en.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
i3en.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
i3en.3xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
i3en.6xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
i3en.12xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
i3en.24xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
i3en.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
m4.large 450 56.25 3,600
m4.xlarge 750 93.75 6,000
m4.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
m4.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
m4.10xlarge 4,000 500 32,000
m4.16xlarge 10,000 1,250 65,000
m5.large * 3,500 437.5 18,750
m5.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 18,750
m5.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 18,750
m5.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 18,750
m5.8xlarge 5,000 625 30,000
m5.12xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
m5.16xlarge 10,000 1,250 60,000
m5.24xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
m5.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
m5a.large * 2,120 265 16,000
m5a.xlarge * 2,120 265 16,000
m5a.2xlarge * 2,120 265 16,000
m5a.4xlarge 2,120 265 16,000
m5a.8xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
m5a.12xlarge 5,000 625 30,000
m5a.16xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
m5a.24xlarge 10,000 1,250 60,000
m5ad.large * 2,120 265 16,000
m5ad.xlarge * 2,120 265 16,000
m5ad.2xlarge * 2,120 265 16,000
m5ad.4xlarge 2,120 265 16,000
m5ad.12xlarge 5,000 675 30,000
m5ad.24xlarge 10,000 1,250 60,000
m5d.large * 3,500 437.5 18,750
m5d.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 18,750
m5d.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 18,750
m5d.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 18,750
m5d.8xlarge 5,000 625 30,000
m5d.12xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
m5d.16xlarge 10,000 1,250 60,000
m5d.24xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
m5d.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
p2.xlarge 750 93.75 6,000
p2.8xlarge 5,000 625 32,500
p2.16xlarge 10,000 1,250 65,000
p3.2xlarge 1,750 218 10,000
p3.8xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
p3.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
p3dn.24xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
r4.large 425 53.13 3,000
r4.xlarge 850 106.25 6,000
r4.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
r4.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 18,750
r4.8xlarge 7,000 875 37,500
r4.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 75,000
r5.large * 3,500 437.5 18,750
r5.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 18,750
r5.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 18,750
r5.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 18,750
r5.8xlarge 5,000 625 30,000
r5.12xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
r5.16xlarge 10,000 1,250 60,000
r5.24xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
r5.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
r5a.large * 2,120 265 16,000
r5a.xlarge * 2,120 265 16,000
r5a.2xlarge * 2,120 265 16,000
r5a.4xlarge 2,120 265 16,000
r5a.8xlarge 3,500 437.5 32,000
r5a.12xlarge 5,000 625 30,000
r5a.16xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
r5a.24xlarge 10,000 1,250 60,000
r5ad.large * 2,210 265 16,000
r5ad.xlarge * 2,210 265 16,000
r5ad.2xlarge * 2,210 265 16,000
r5ad.4xlarge 2,210 265 16,000
r5ad.12xlarge 5,000 625 30,000
r5ad.24xlarge 10,000 1,250 60,000
r5d.large * 3,500 437.5 18,750
r5d.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 18,750
r5d.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 18,750
r5d.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 18,750
r5d.8xlarge 5,000 625 30,000
r5d.12xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
r5d.16xlarge 10,000 1,250 60,000
r5d.24xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
r5d.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
t3.nano * 1,536 192 11,800
t3.micro * 1,536 192 11,800
t3.small * 1,536 192 11,800
t3.medium * 1,536 192 11,800
t3.large * 2,048 256 15,700
t3.xlarge * 2,048 256 15,700
t3.2xlarge * 2,048 256 15,700
t3a.nano * 1,536 192 11,800
t3a.micro * 1,536 192 11,800
t3a.small * 1,536 192 11,800
t3a.medium * 1,536 192 11,800
t3a.large * 2,048 256 15,700
t3a.xlarge * 2,048 256 15,700
t3a.2xlarge * 2,048 256 15,700
u-6tb1.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
u-9tb1.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
u-12tb1.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000
x1.16xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
x1.32xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
x1e.xlarge 500 62.5 3,700
x1e.2xlarge 1,000 125 7,400
x1e.4xlarge 1,750 218.75 10,000
x1e.8xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
x1e.16xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
x1e.32xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
z1d.large * 2,333 291 13,333
z1d.xlarge * 2,333 291 13,333
z1d.2xlarge 2,333 292 13,333
z1d.3xlarge 3,500 438 20,000
z1d.6xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
z1d.12xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
z1d.metal 14,000 1,750 80,000

* These instance types can support maximum performance for 30 minutes at least once every 24 hours. For example, c5.large instances can deliver 437.5 Mib/s for 30 minutes at least once every 24 hours. If you have a workload that requires sustained maximum performance for longer than 30 minutes, select an instance type according to baseline performance as shown in the following table:

Instance type Baseline bandwidth (Mib/s) Baseline throughput (MiB/s, 128 KiB I/O) Baseline IOPS (16 KiB I/O)
c5.large 525 65.625 4,000
c5.xlarge 800 100 6,000
c5.2xlarge 1,750 218.75 10,000
c5d.large 525 65.625 4,000
c5d.xlarge 800 100 6,000
c5d.2xlarge 1,750 218.75 10,000
c5n.large 525 65.625 4,000
c5n.xlarge 800 100 6,000
c5n.2xlarge 1,750 218.75 10,000
i3en.large 425 53.125 3,000
i3en.xlarge 850 106.25 6,000
i3en.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
i3en.3xlarge 2,800 350 15,000
m5.large 480 60 3,600
m5.xlarge 850 106.25 6,000
m5.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
m5a.large 480 60 3,600
m5a.xlarge 800 100 6,000
m5a.2xlarge 1,166 146 8,333
m5ad.large 480 60 3,600
m5ad.xlarge 800 100 6,000
m5ad.2xlarge 1,166 146 8,333
m5d.large 480 60 3,600
m5d.xlarge 850 106.25 6,000
m5d.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
r5.large 480 60 3,600
r5.xlarge 850 106.25 6,000
r5.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
r5a.large 480 60 3,600
r5a.xlarge 800 100 6,000
r5a.2xlarge 1,166 146 8,333
r5ad.large 480 60 3,600
r5ad.xlarge 800 100 6,000
r5ad.2xlarge 1,166 146 8,333
r5d.large 480 60 3,600
r5d.xlarge 850 106.25 6,000
r5d.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
t3.nano 32 4 250
t3.micro 64 8 500
t3.small 128 16 1,000
t3.medium 256 32 2,000
t3.large 512 64 4,000
t3.xlarge 512 64 4,000
t3.2xlarge 512 64 4,000
t3a.nano 32 4 250
t3a.micro 64 8 500
t3a.small 128 16 1,000
t3a.medium 256 32 2,000
t3a.large 512 64 4,000
t3a.xlarge 512 64 4,000
t3a.2xlarge 512 64 4,000
z1d.large 583 73 3,333
z1d.xlarge 1,167 146 6,667

The EBSIOBalance% and EBSByteBalance% metrics can help you determine if your instances are sized correctly. You can view these metrics in the CloudWatch console and set an alarm that is triggered based on a threshold you specify. These metrics are expressed as a percentage. Instances with a consistently low balance percentage are candidates for upsizing. Instances where the balance percentage never drops below 100% are candidates for downsizing. For more information, see Monitoring Your Instances Using CloudWatch.

EBS Optimization Supported

The following table lists the instance types that support EBS optimization but EBS optimization is not enabled by default. You can enable EBS optimization when you launch these instances or after they are running. Instances must have EBS optimization enabled to achieve the level of performance described. When you enable EBS optimization for an instance that is not EBS-optimized by default, you pay an additional low, hourly fee for the dedicated capacity. For pricing information, see EBS-optimized Instances on the Amazon EC2 Pricing page for On-Demand instances.

Instance type Maximum bandwidth (Mib/s) Maximum throughput (MiB/s, 128 KiB I/O) Maximum IOPS (16 KiB I/O)
c1.xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
c3.xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
c3.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
c3.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
g2.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
i2.xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
i2.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
i2.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
m1.large 500 62.5 4,000
m1.xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
m2.2xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
m2.4xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
m3.xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
m3.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
r3.xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
r3.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
r3.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000

The i2.8xlarge, c3.8xlarge, and r3.8xlarge instances do not have dedicated EBS bandwidth and therefore do not offer EBS optimization. On these instances, network traffic and Amazon EBS traffic share the same 10-gigabit network interface.

Enabling EBS Optimization at Launch

You can enable optimization for an instance by setting its attribute for EBS optimization.

To enable Amazon EBS optimization when launching an instance using the console

  1. Open the Amazon EC2 console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/.

  2. Choose Launch Instance.

  3. In Step 1: Choose an Amazon Machine Image (AMI), select an AMI.

  4. In Step 2: Choose an Instance Type, select an instance type that is listed as supporting Amazon EBS optimization.

  5. In Step 3: Configure Instance Details, complete the fields that you need and choose Launch as EBS-optimized instance. If the instance type that you selected in the previous step doesn't support Amazon EBS optimization, this option is not present. If the instance type that you selected is Amazon EBS–optimized by default, this option is selected and you can't deselect it.

  6. Follow the directions to complete the wizard and launch your instance.

To enable EBS optimization when launching an instance using the command line

You can use one of the following options with the corresponding command. For more information about these command line interfaces, see Accessing Amazon EC2.

Enable EBS Optimization for a Running Instance

You can enable or disable optimization for a running instance by modifying its Amazon EBS–optimized instance attribute.

To enable EBS optimization for a running instance using the console

  1. Open the Amazon EC2 console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/.

  2. In the navigation pane, click Instances, and select the instance.

  3. Click Actions, select Instance State, and then click Stop.

    Warning

    When you stop an instance, the data on any instance store volumes is erased. To keep data from instance store volumes, be sure to back it up to persistent storage.

  4. In the confirmation dialog box, click Yes, Stop. It can take a few minutes for the instance to stop.

  5. With the instance still selected, click Actions, select Instance Settings, and then click Change Instance Type.

  6. In the Change Instance Type dialog box, do one of the following:

    • If the instance type of your instance is Amazon EBS–optimized by default, EBS-optimized is selected and you can't change it. You can choose Cancel, because Amazon EBS optimization is already enabled for the instance.

    • If the instance type of your instance supports Amazon EBS optimization, choose EBS-optimized, Apply.

    • If the instance type of your instance does not support Amazon EBS optimization, you can't choose EBS-optimized. You can select an instance type from Instance Type that supports Amazon EBS optimization, and then choose EBS-optimized, Apply.

  7. Choose Actions, Instance State, Start.

To enable EBS optimization for a running instance using the command line

You can use one of the following options with the corresponding command. For more information about these command line interfaces, see Accessing Amazon EC2.