Amazon EBS–optimized instances - Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

Amazon EBS–optimized instances

An Amazon EBS–optimized instance uses an optimized configuration stack and provides additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O. This optimization provides the best performance for your EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O and other traffic from your instance.

EBS–optimized instances deliver dedicated bandwidth to Amazon EBS. When attached to an EBS–optimized instance, General Purpose SSD (gp2) volumes are designed to deliver their baseline and burst performance 99% of the time, and Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) volumes are designed to deliver their provisioned performance 99.9% of the time. Both Throughput Optimized HDD (st1) and Cold HDD (sc1) guarantee performance consistency of 90% of burst throughput 99% of the time. Non-compliant periods are approximately uniformly distributed, targeting 99% of expected total throughput each hour. For more information, see Amazon EBS volume types.

Supported instance types

The following tables show which instance types support EBS optimization. They include the dedicated bandwidth to Amazon EBS, the typical maximum aggregate throughput that can be achieved on that connection with a streaming read workload and 128 KiB I/O size, and the maximum IOPS the instance can support if you are using a 16 KiB I/O size. Choose an EBS–optimized instance that provides more dedicated Amazon EBS throughput than your application needs; otherwise, the connection between Amazon EBS and Amazon EC2 can become a performance bottleneck.

EBS optimized by default

The following table lists the instance types that support EBS optimization and EBS optimization is enabled by default. There is no need to enable EBS optimization and no effect if you disable EBS optimization.

Instance size Maximum bandwidth (Mbps) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 128 KiB I/O) Maximum IOPS (16 KiB I/O)
a1.medium * 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.large * 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
a1.metal 3,500 437.5 20,000
c4.large 500 62.5 4,000
c4.xlarge 750 93.75 6,000
c4.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
c4.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
c4.8xlarge 4,000 500 32,000
c5.large * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5.9xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
c5.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
c5.18xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
c5.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
c5.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
c5a.large * 3,170 396 13,300
c5a.xlarge * 3,170 396 13,300
c5a.2xlarge * 3,170 396 13,300
c5a.4xlarge * 3,170 396 13,300
c5a.8xlarge 3,170 396 13,300
c5a.12xlarge 4,750 594 20,000
c5a.16xlarge 6,300 788 26,700
c5a.24xlarge 9,500 1,188 40,000
c5d.large * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5d.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5d.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5d.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5d.9xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
c5d.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
c5d.18xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
c5d.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
c5d.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
c5n.large * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5n.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5n.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5n.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
c5n.9xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
c5n.18xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
c5n.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
d2.xlarge 750 93.75 6,000
d2.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
d2.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
d2.8xlarge 4,000 500 32,000
f1.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
f1.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 44,000
f1.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 75,000
g3s.xlarge 850 106.25 5,000
g3.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
g3.8xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
g3.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
g4dn.xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
g4dn.2xlarge * 3,500 437.5 20,000
g4dn.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
g4dn.8xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
g4dn.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
g4dn.16xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
h1.2xlarge 1,750 218.75 12,000
h1.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
h1.8xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
h1.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
i3.large 425 53.13 3000
i3.xlarge 850 106.25 6000
i3.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
i3.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 16,000
i3.8xlarge 7,000 875 32,500
i3.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 65,000
i3.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
i3en.large * 4,750 593.75 20,000
i3en.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
i3en.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
i3en.3xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
i3en.6xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
i3en.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
i3en.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
i3en.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
inf1.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
inf1.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
inf1.6xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
inf1.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
m4.large 450 56.25 3,600
m4.xlarge 750 93.75 6,000
m4.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
m4.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
m4.10xlarge 4,000 500 32,000
m4.16xlarge 10,000 1,250 65,000
m5.large * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5.8xlarge 6,800 850 30,000
m5.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
m5.16xlarge 13,600 1,700 60,000
m5.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
m5.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
m5a.large * 2,880 360 16,000
m5a.xlarge * 2,880 360 16,000
m5a.2xlarge * 2,880 360 16,000
m5a.4xlarge 2,880 360 16,000
m5a.8xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
m5a.12xlarge 6,780 847.5 30,000
m5a.16xlarge 9,500 1,187.50 40,000
m5a.24xlarge 13,570 1,696.25 60,000
m5ad.large * 2,880 360 16,000
m5ad.xlarge * 2,880 360 16,000
m5ad.2xlarge * 2,880 360 16,000
m5ad.4xlarge 2,880 360 16,000
m5ad.8xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
m5ad.12xlarge 6,780 847.5 30,000
m5ad.16xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
m5ad.24xlarge 13,570 1,696.25 60,000
m5d.large * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5d.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5d.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5d.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5d.8xlarge 6,800 850 30,000
m5d.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
m5d.16xlarge 13,600 1,700 60,000
m5d.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
m5d.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
m5dn.large * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5dn.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5dn.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5dn.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5dn.8xlarge 6,800 850 30,000
m5dn.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
m5dn.16xlarge 13,600 1,700 60,000
m5dn.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
m5n.large * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5n.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5n.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5n.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 18,750
m5n.8xlarge 6,800 850 30,000
m5n.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
m5n.16xlarge 13,600 1,700 60,000
m5n.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
m6g.medium * 4,750 593.75 20,000
m6g.large * 4,750 593.75 20,000
m6g.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
m6g.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 20,000
m6g.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
m6g.8xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
m6g.12xlarge 14,250 1,781.25 50,000
m6g.16xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
m6g.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
p2.xlarge 750 93.75 6,000
p2.8xlarge 5,000 625 32,500
p2.16xlarge 10,000 1,250 65,000
p3.2xlarge 1,750 218.75 10,000
p3.8xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
p3.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
p3dn.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
r4.large 425 53.13 3,000
r4.xlarge 850 106.25 6,000
r4.2xlarge 1,700 212.5 12,000
r4.4xlarge 3,500 437.5 18,750
r4.8xlarge 7,000 875 37,500
r4.16xlarge 14,000 1,750 75,000
r5.large * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5.8xlarge 6,800 850 30,000
r5.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
r5.16xlarge 13,600 1,700 60,000
r5.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
r5.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
r5a.large * 2,880 360 16,000
r5a.xlarge * 2,880 360 16,000
r5a.2xlarge * 2,880 360 16,000
r5a.4xlarge 2,880 360 16,000
r5a.8xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
r5a.12xlarge 6,780 847.5 30,000
r5a.16xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
r5a.24xlarge 13,570 1,696.25 60,000
r5ad.large * 2,880 360 16,000
r5ad.xlarge * 2,880 360 16,000
r5ad.2xlarge * 2,880 360 16,000
r5ad.4xlarge 2,880 360 16,000
r5ad.8xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
r5ad.12xlarge 6,780 847.5 30,000
r5ad.16xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
r5ad.24xlarge 13,570 1,696.25 60,000
r5d.large * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5d.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5d.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5d.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5d.8xlarge 6,800 850 30,000
r5d.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
r5d.16xlarge 13,600 1,700 60,000
r5d.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
r5d.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000
r5dn.large * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5dn.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5dn.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5dn.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5dn.8xlarge 6,800 850 30,000
r5dn.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
r5dn.16xlarge 13,600 1,700 60,000
r5dn.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
r5n.large * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5n.xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5n.2xlarge * 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5n.4xlarge 4,750 593.75 18,750
r5n.8xlarge 6,800 850 30,000
r5n.12xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
r5n.16xlarge 13,600 1,700 60,000
r5n.24xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
t3.nano * 2,085 260.57 11,800
t3.micro * 2,085 260.57 11,800
t3.small * 2,085 260.57 11,800
t3.medium * 2,085 260.57 11,800
t3.large * 2,780 347.5 15,700
t3.xlarge * 2,780 347.5 15,700
t3.2xlarge * 2,780 347.5 15,700
t3a.nano * 2,085 260.57 11,800
t3a.micro * 2,085 260.57 11,800
t3a.small * 2,085 260.57 11,800
t3a.medium * 2,085 260.57 11,800
t3a.large * 2,780 347.5 15,700
t3a.xlarge * 2,780 347.5 15,700
t3a.2xlarge * 2,780 347.5 15,700
u-6tb1.metal 38,000 4,750 160,000
u-9tb1.metal 38,000 4,750 160,000
u-12tb1.metal 38,000 4,750 160,000
u-18tb1.metal 38,000 4,750 160,000
u-24tb1.metal 38,000 4,750 160,000
x1.16xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
x1.32xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
x1e.xlarge 500 62.5 3,700
x1e.2xlarge 1,000 125 7,400
x1e.4xlarge 1,750 218.75 10,000
x1e.8xlarge 3,500 437.5 20,000
x1e.16xlarge 7,000 875 40,000
x1e.32xlarge 14,000 1,750 80,000
z1d.large * 3,170 396.25 13,333
z1d.xlarge * 3,170 396.25 13,333
z1d.2xlarge 3,170 396.25 13,333
z1d.3xlarge 4,750 593.75 20,000
z1d.6xlarge 9,500 1,187.5 40,000
z1d.12xlarge 19,000 2,375 80,000
z1d.metal 19,000 2,375 80,000

* These instance types can support maximum performance for 30 minutes at least once every 24 hours. If you have a workload that requires sustained maximum performance for longer than 30 minutes, select an instance type according to baseline performance as shown in the following table.

Instance size Baseline bandwidth (Mbps) Baseline throughput (MB/s, 128 KiB I/O) Baseline IOPS (16 KiB I/O)
a1.medium 300 37.5 2,500
a1.large 525 65.625 4,000
a1.xlarge 800 100 6,000
a1.2xlarge 1,750 218.75 10,000
c5.large 650 81.25 4,000
c5.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
c5.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 10,000
c5a.large 200 25 800
c5a.xlarge 400 50 1,600
c5a.2xlarge 800 100 3,200
c5a.4xlarge 1,580 198 6,600
c5d.large 650 81.25 4,000
c5d.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
c5d.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 10,000
c5n.large 650 81.25 4,000
c5n.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
c5n.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 10,000
g4dn.xlarge 950 118.75 3,000
g4dn.2xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
i3en.large 577 72.1 3,000
i3en.xlarge 1,154 144,2 6,000
i3en.2xlarge 2,307 288.39 12,000
i3en.3xlarge 3,800 475 15,000
inf1.xlarge 1,190 148.75 4,000
inf1.2xlarge 1,190 148.75 6,000
m5.large 650 81.25 3,600
m5.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
m5.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 12,000
m5a.large 650 81.25 3,600
m5a.xlarge 1,085 135.63 6,000
m5a.2xlarge 1,580 197.5 8,333
m5ad.large 650 81.25 3,600
m5ad.xlarge 1,085 135.63 6,000
m5ad.2xlarge 1,580 197.5 8,333
m5d.large 650 81.25 3,600
m5d.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
m5d.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 12,000
m5dn.large 650 81.25 3,600
m5dn.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
m5dn.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 12,000
m5n.large 650 81.25 3,600
m5n.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
m5n.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 12,000
m6g.medium 315 39.375 2,500
m6g.large 630 78.75 3,600
m6g.xlarge 1,188 148.5 6,000
m6g.2xlarge 2,375 296.875 12,000
r5.large 650 81.25 3,600
r5.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
r5.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 12,000
r5a.large 650 81.25 3,600
r5a.xlarge 1,085 135.63 6,000
r5a.2xlarge 1,580 197.5 8,333
r5ad.large 650 81.25 3,600
r5ad.xlarge 1,085 135.63 6,000
r5ad.2xlarge 1,580 197.5 8,333
r5d.large 650 81.25 3,600
r5d.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
r5d.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 12,000
r5dn.large 650 81.25 3,600
r5dn.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
r5dn.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 12,000
r5n.large 650 81.25 3,600
r5n.xlarge 1,150 143.75 6,000
r5n.2xlarge 2,300 287.5 12,000
t3.nano 43 5.43 250
t3.micro 87 10.86 500
t3.small 174 21.71 1,000
t3.medium 347 43.43 2,000
t3.large 695 86.86 4,000
t3.xlarge 695 86.86 4,000
t3.2xlarge 695 86.86 4,000
t3a.nano 45 5.63 250
t3a.micro 90 11.25 500
t3a.small 175 21.88 1,000
t3a.medium 350 43.75 2,000
t3a.large 695 86.86 4,000
t3a.xlarge 695 86.86 4,000
t3a.2xlarge 695 86.86 4,000
z1d.large 800 100 3,333
z1d.xlarge 1,580 197.5 6,667

EBS optimization supported

The following table lists the instance types that support EBS optimization but EBS optimization is not enabled by default. You can enable EBS optimization when you launch these instances or after they are running. Instances must have EBS optimization enabled to achieve the level of performance described. When you enable EBS optimization for an instance that is not EBS-optimized by default, you pay an additional low, hourly fee for the dedicated capacity. For pricing information, see EBS-optimized Instances on the Amazon EC2 Pricing page for On-Demand instances.

Instance size Maximum bandwidth (Mbps) Maximum throughput (MB/s, 128 KiB I/O) Maximum IOPS (16 KiB I/O)
c1.xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
c3.xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
c3.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
c3.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
g2.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
i2.xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
i2.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
i2.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000
m1.large 500 62.5 4,000
m1.xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
m2.2xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
m2.4xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
m3.xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
m3.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
r3.xlarge 500 62.5 4,000
r3.2xlarge 1,000 125 8,000
r3.4xlarge 2,000 250 16,000

The i2.8xlarge, c3.8xlarge, and r3.8xlarge instances do not have dedicated EBS bandwidth and therefore do not offer EBS optimization. On these instances, network traffic and Amazon EBS traffic share the same 10-gigabit network interface.

Getting maximum performance

You can use the EBSIOBalance% and EBSByteBalance% metrics to help you determine whether your instances are sized correctly. You can view these metrics in the CloudWatch console and set an alarm that is triggered based on a threshold you specify. These metrics are expressed as a percentage. Instances with a consistently low balance percentage are candidates to size up. Instances where the balance percentage never drops below 100% are candidates for downsizing. For more information, see Monitoring your instances using CloudWatch.

The high memory instances are designed to run large in-memory databases, including production deployments of the SAP HANA in-memory database, in the cloud. To maximize EBS performance, use high memory instances with an even number of io1 volumes with identical provisioned performance. For example, for IOPS heavy workloads, use four io1 volumes with 40,000 provisioned IOPS to get the maximum 160,000 instance IOPS. Similarly, for throughput heavy workloads, use six io1 volumes with 48,000 provisioned IOPS to get the maximum 4,750 MB/s throughput. For additional recommendations, see Storage Configuration for SAP HANA.

Considerations

  • G4, I3en, Inf1, M5a, M5ad, R5a, R5ad, T3, T3a, and Z1d instances launched after February 26, 2020 provide the maximum performance listed in the table above. To get the maximum performance from an instance launched before February 26, 2020, stop and start it.

  • C5, C5d, C5n, M5, M5d, M5n, M5dn, R5, R5d, R5n, R5dn, and P3dn instances launched after December 3, 2019 provide the maximum performance listed in the table above. To get the maximum performance from an instance launched before December 3, 2019, stop and start it.

  • u-6tb1.metal, u-9tb1.metal, and u-12tb1.metal instances launched after March 12, 2020 provide the performance in the table above. Instances of these types launched before March 12, 2020 might provide lower performance. To get the maximum performance from an instance launched before March 12, 2020, contact your account team to upgrade the instance at no additional cost.

Enabling EBS optimization at launch

You can enable optimization for an instance by setting its attribute for EBS optimization.

To enable Amazon EBS optimization when launching an instance using the console

  1. Open the Amazon EC2 console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/.

  2. Choose Launch Instance.

  3. In Step 1: Choose an Amazon Machine Image (AMI), select an AMI.

  4. In Step 2: Choose an Instance Type, select an instance type that is listed as supporting Amazon EBS optimization.

  5. In Step 3: Configure Instance Details, complete the fields that you need and choose Launch as EBS-optimized instance. If the instance type that you selected in the previous step doesn't support Amazon EBS optimization, this option is not present. If the instance type that you selected is Amazon EBS–optimized by default, this option is selected and you can't deselect it.

  6. Follow the directions to complete the wizard and launch your instance.

To enable EBS optimization when launching an instance using the command line

You can use one of the following commands with the corresponding option. For more information about these command line interfaces, see Accessing Amazon EC2.

Enable EBS optimization for an existing instance

You can enable or disable optimization for an existing instance by modifying its Amazon EBS–optimized instance attribute. If the instance is running, you must stop it first.

Warning

When you stop an instance, the data on any instance store volumes is erased. To keep data from instance store volumes, be sure to back it up to persistent storage.

To enable EBS optimization for an existing instance using the console

  1. Open the Amazon EC2 console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/.

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Instances, and select the instance.

  3. To stop the instance, choose Actions, Instance State, Stop.

  4. In the confirmation dialog box, choose Yes, Stop. It can take a few minutes for the instance to stop.

  5. With the instance still selected, choose Actions, Instance Settings, Change Instance Type.

  6. In the Change Instance Type dialog box, do one of the following:

    • If the instance type of your instance is Amazon EBS–optimized by default, EBS-optimized is selected and you can't change it. You can choose Cancel, because Amazon EBS optimization is already enabled for the instance.

    • If the instance type of your instance supports Amazon EBS optimization, choose EBS-optimized, Apply.

    • If the instance type of your instance does not support Amazon EBS optimization, you can't choose EBS-optimized. You can select an instance type from Instance Type that supports Amazon EBS optimization, and then choose EBS-optimized, Apply.

  7. Choose Actions, Instance State, Start.

To enable EBS optimization for an existing instance using the command line

  1. If the instance is running, use one of the following commands to stop it:

  2. To enable EBS optimization, use one of the following commands with the corresponding option: