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Amazon Simple Queue Service
Developer Guide

Increasing Throughput using Horizontal Scaling and Action Batching

Amazon SQS queues can deliver very high throughput. Standard queues support a nearly unlimited number of transactions per second (TPS) per action. By default, FIFO queues support up to 3,000 messages per second with batching. To request a limit increase, file a support request. FIFO queues support up to 300 messages per second (300 send, receive, or delete operations per second) without batching.

To achieve high throughput, you must scale message producers and consumers horizontally (add more producers and consumers).

Horizontal Scaling

Because you access Amazon SQS through an HTTP request-response protocol, the request latency (the interval between initiating a request and receiving a response) limits the throughput that you can achieve from a single thread using a single connection. For example, if the latency from an Amazon EC2-based client to Amazon SQS in the same region averages 20 ms, the maximum throughput from a single thread over a single connection averages 50 TPS.

Horizontal scaling involves increasing the number of message producers (which make SendMessage requests) and consumers (which make ReceiveMessage and DeleteMessage requests) in order to increase your overall queue throughput. You can scale horizontally in three ways:

  • Increase the number of threads per client

  • Add more clients

  • Increase the number of threads per client and add more clients

When you add more clients, you achieve essentially linear gains in queue throughput. For example, if you double the number of clients, you also double the throughput.

Note

As you scale horizontally, you must ensure that the Amazon SQS queue that you use has enough connections or threads to support the number of concurrent message producers and consumers that send requests and receive responses. For example, by default, instances of the AWS SDK for Java AmazonSQSClient class maintain at most 50 connections to Amazon SQS. To create additional concurrent producers and consumers, you must adjust the maximum number of allowable producer and consumer threads on an AmazonSQSClientBuilder object, for example:

final AmazonSQS sqsClient = AmazonSQSClientBuilder.standard() .withClientConfiguration(new ClientConfiguration() .withMaxConnections(producerCount + consumerCount)) .build();

For AmazonSQSAsyncClient, you also must make sure that enough threads are available.

Action Batching

Batching performs more work during each round trip to the service (for example, when you send multiple messages with a single SendMessageBatch request). The Amazon SQS batch actions are SendMessageBatch, DeleteMessageBatch, and ChangeMessageVisibilityBatch. To take advantage of batching without changing your producers or consumers, you can use the Amazon SQS Buffered Asynchronous Client.

Note

Because ReceiveMessage can process 10 messages at a time, there is no ReceiveMessageBatch action.

Batching distributes the latency of the batch action over the multiple messages in a batch request, rather than accept the entire latency for a single message (for example, a SendMessage request). Because each round trip carries more work, batch requests make more efficient use of threads and connections, improving throughput.

You can combine batching with horizontal scaling to provide throughput with fewer threads, connections, and requests than individual message requests. You can use batched Amazon SQS actions to send, receive, or delete up to 10 messages at a time. Because Amazon SQS charges by the request, batching can substantially reduce your costs.

Batching can introduce some complexity for your application (for example, you application must accumulate messages before sending them, or it sometimes must wait longer for a response). However, batching can be still effective in the following cases:

  • Your application generates many messages in a short time, so the delay is never very long.

  • A message consumer fetches messages from a queue at its discretion, unlike typical message producers that need to send messages in response to events they don't control.

Important

A batch request might succeed even though individual messages in the batch failed. After a batch request, always check for individual message failures and retry the action if necessary.

Working Java Example for Single-Operation and Batch Requests

Prerequisites

Add the aws-java-sdk-sqs.jar, aws-java-sdk-ec2.jar, and commons-logging.jar packages to your Java build class path. The following example shows these dependencies in a Maven project pom.xml file.

<dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>com.amazonaws</groupId> <artifactId>aws-java-sdk-sqs</artifactId> <version>LATEST</version> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>com.amazonaws</groupId> <artifactId>aws-java-sdk-ec2</artifactId> <version>LATEST</version> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>commons-logging</groupId> <artifactId>commons-logging</artifactId> <version>LATEST</version> </dependency> </dependencies>

SimpleProducerConsumer.java

The following Java code example implements a simple producer-consumer pattern. The main thread spawns a number of producer and consumer threads that process 1 KB messages for a specified time. This example includes producers and consumers that make single-operation requests and those that make batch requests.

/* * Copyright 2010-2018 Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. * * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"). * You may not use this file except in compliance with the License. * A copy of the License is located at * * https://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0 * * or in the "license" file accompanying this file. This file is distributed * on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either * express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing * permissions and limitations under the License. * */ import com.amazonaws.AmazonClientException; import com.amazonaws.ClientConfiguration; import com.amazonaws.services.sqs.AmazonSQS; import com.amazonaws.services.sqs.AmazonSQSClientBuilder; import com.amazonaws.services.sqs.model.*; import org.apache.commons.logging.Log; import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory; import java.math.BigInteger; import java.util.ArrayList; import java.util.List; import java.util.Random; import java.util.Scanner; import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit; import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicBoolean; import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger; /** * Start a specified number of producer and consumer threads, and produce-consume * for the least of the specified duration and 1 hour. Some messages can be left * in the queue because producers and consumers might not be in exact balance. */ public class SimpleProducerConsumer { // The maximum runtime of the program. private final static int MAX_RUNTIME_MINUTES = 60; private final static Log log = LogFactory.getLog(SimpleProducerConsumer.class); public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException { final Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter the queue name: "); final String queueName = input.nextLine(); System.out.print("Enter the number of producers: "); final int producerCount = input.nextInt(); System.out.print("Enter the number of consumers: "); final int consumerCount = input.nextInt(); System.out.print("Enter the number of messages per batch: "); final int batchSize = input.nextInt(); System.out.print("Enter the message size in bytes: "); final int messageSizeByte = input.nextInt(); System.out.print("Enter the run time in minutes: "); final int runTimeMinutes = input.nextInt(); /* * Create a new instance of the builder with all defaults (credentials * and region) set automatically. For more information, see Creating * Service Clients in the AWS SDK for Java Developer Guide. */ final ClientConfiguration clientConfiguration = new ClientConfiguration() .withMaxConnections(producerCount + consumerCount); final AmazonSQS sqsClient = AmazonSQSClientBuilder.standard() .withClientConfiguration(clientConfiguration) .build(); final String queueUrl = sqsClient .getQueueUrl(new GetQueueUrlRequest(queueName)).getQueueUrl(); // The flag used to stop producer, consumer, and monitor threads. final AtomicBoolean stop = new AtomicBoolean(false); // Start the producers. final AtomicInteger producedCount = new AtomicInteger(); final Thread[] producers = new Thread[producerCount]; for (int i = 0; i < producerCount; i++) { if (batchSize == 1) { producers[i] = new Producer(sqsClient, queueUrl, messageSizeByte, producedCount, stop); } else { producers[i] = new BatchProducer(sqsClient, queueUrl, batchSize, messageSizeByte, producedCount, stop); } producers[i].start(); } // Start the consumers. final AtomicInteger consumedCount = new AtomicInteger(); final Thread[] consumers = new Thread[consumerCount]; for (int i = 0; i < consumerCount; i++) { if (batchSize == 1) { consumers[i] = new Consumer(sqsClient, queueUrl, consumedCount, stop); } else { consumers[i] = new BatchConsumer(sqsClient, queueUrl, batchSize, consumedCount, stop); } consumers[i].start(); } // Start the monitor thread. final Thread monitor = new Monitor(producedCount, consumedCount, stop); monitor.start(); // Wait for the specified amount of time then stop. Thread.sleep(TimeUnit.MINUTES.toMillis(Math.min(runTimeMinutes, MAX_RUNTIME_MINUTES))); stop.set(true); // Join all threads. for (int i = 0; i < producerCount; i++) { producers[i].join(); } for (int i = 0; i < consumerCount; i++) { consumers[i].join(); } monitor.interrupt(); monitor.join(); } private static String makeRandomString(int sizeByte) { final byte[] bs = new byte[(int) Math.ceil(sizeByte * 5 / 8)]; new Random().nextBytes(bs); bs[0] = (byte) ((bs[0] | 64) & 127); return new BigInteger(bs).toString(32); } /** * The producer thread uses {@code SendMessage} * to send messages until it is stopped. */ private static class Producer extends Thread { final AmazonSQS sqsClient; final String queueUrl; final AtomicInteger producedCount; final AtomicBoolean stop; final String theMessage; Producer(AmazonSQS sqsQueueBuffer, String queueUrl, int messageSizeByte, AtomicInteger producedCount, AtomicBoolean stop) { this.sqsClient = sqsQueueBuffer; this.queueUrl = queueUrl; this.producedCount = producedCount; this.stop = stop; this.theMessage = makeRandomString(messageSizeByte); } /* * The producedCount object tracks the number of messages produced by * all producer threads. If there is an error, the program exits the * run() method. */ public void run() { try { while (!stop.get()) { sqsClient.sendMessage(new SendMessageRequest(queueUrl, theMessage)); producedCount.incrementAndGet(); } } catch (AmazonClientException e) { /* * By default, AmazonSQSClient retries calls 3 times before * failing. If this unlikely condition occurs, stop. */ log.error("Producer: " + e.getMessage()); System.exit(1); } } } /** * The producer thread uses {@code SendMessageBatch} * to send messages until it is stopped. */ private static class BatchProducer extends Thread { final AmazonSQS sqsClient; final String queueUrl; final int batchSize; final AtomicInteger producedCount; final AtomicBoolean stop; final String theMessage; BatchProducer(AmazonSQS sqsQueueBuffer, String queueUrl, int batchSize, int messageSizeByte, AtomicInteger producedCount, AtomicBoolean stop) { this.sqsClient = sqsQueueBuffer; this.queueUrl = queueUrl; this.batchSize = batchSize; this.producedCount = producedCount; this.stop = stop; this.theMessage = makeRandomString(messageSizeByte); } public void run() { try { while (!stop.get()) { final SendMessageBatchRequest batchRequest = new SendMessageBatchRequest().withQueueUrl(queueUrl); final List<SendMessageBatchRequestEntry> entries = new ArrayList<SendMessageBatchRequestEntry>(); for (int i = 0; i < batchSize; i++) entries.add(new SendMessageBatchRequestEntry() .withId(Integer.toString(i)) .withMessageBody(theMessage)); batchRequest.setEntries(entries); final SendMessageBatchResult batchResult = sqsClient.sendMessageBatch(batchRequest); producedCount.addAndGet(batchResult.getSuccessful().size()); /* * Because SendMessageBatch can return successfully, but * individual batch items fail, retry the failed batch items. */ if (!batchResult.getFailed().isEmpty()) { log.warn("Producer: retrying sending " + batchResult.getFailed().size() + " messages"); for (int i = 0, n = batchResult.getFailed().size(); i < n; i++) { sqsClient.sendMessage(new SendMessageRequest(queueUrl, theMessage)); producedCount.incrementAndGet(); } } } } catch (AmazonClientException e) { /* * By default, AmazonSQSClient retries calls 3 times before * failing. If this unlikely condition occurs, stop. */ log.error("BatchProducer: " + e.getMessage()); System.exit(1); } } } /** * The consumer thread uses {@code ReceiveMessage} and {@code DeleteMessage} * to consume messages until it is stopped. */ private static class Consumer extends Thread { final AmazonSQS sqsClient; final String queueUrl; final AtomicInteger consumedCount; final AtomicBoolean stop; Consumer(AmazonSQS sqsClient, String queueUrl, AtomicInteger consumedCount, AtomicBoolean stop) { this.sqsClient = sqsClient; this.queueUrl = queueUrl; this.consumedCount = consumedCount; this.stop = stop; } /* * Each consumer thread receives and deletes messages until the main * thread stops the consumer thread. The consumedCount object tracks the * number of messages that are consumed by all consumer threads, and the * count is logged periodically. */ public void run() { try { while (!stop.get()) { try { final ReceiveMessageResult result = sqsClient .receiveMessage(new ReceiveMessageRequest(queueUrl)); if (!result.getMessages().isEmpty()) { final Message m = result.getMessages().get(0); sqsClient.deleteMessage(new DeleteMessageRequest(queueUrl, m.getReceiptHandle())); consumedCount.incrementAndGet(); } } catch (AmazonClientException e) { log.error(e.getMessage()); } } } catch (AmazonClientException e) { /* * By default, AmazonSQSClient retries calls 3 times before * failing. If this unlikely condition occurs, stop. */ log.error("Consumer: " + e.getMessage()); System.exit(1); } } } /** * The consumer thread uses {@code ReceiveMessage} and {@code * DeleteMessageBatch} to consume messages until it is stopped. */ private static class BatchConsumer extends Thread { final AmazonSQS sqsClient; final String queueUrl; final int batchSize; final AtomicInteger consumedCount; final AtomicBoolean stop; BatchConsumer(AmazonSQS sqsClient, String queueUrl, int batchSize, AtomicInteger consumedCount, AtomicBoolean stop) { this.sqsClient = sqsClient; this.queueUrl = queueUrl; this.batchSize = batchSize; this.consumedCount = consumedCount; this.stop = stop; } public void run() { try { while (!stop.get()) { final ReceiveMessageResult result = sqsClient .receiveMessage(new ReceiveMessageRequest(queueUrl) .withMaxNumberOfMessages(batchSize)); if (!result.getMessages().isEmpty()) { final List<Message> messages = result.getMessages(); final DeleteMessageBatchRequest batchRequest = new DeleteMessageBatchRequest() .withQueueUrl(queueUrl); final List<DeleteMessageBatchRequestEntry> entries = new ArrayList<DeleteMessageBatchRequestEntry>(); for (int i = 0, n = messages.size(); i < n; i++) entries.add(new DeleteMessageBatchRequestEntry() .withId(Integer.toString(i)) .withReceiptHandle(messages.get(i) .getReceiptHandle())); batchRequest.setEntries(entries); final DeleteMessageBatchResult batchResult = sqsClient .deleteMessageBatch(batchRequest); consumedCount.addAndGet(batchResult.getSuccessful().size()); /* * Because DeleteMessageBatch can return successfully, * but individual batch items fail, retry the failed * batch items. */ if (!batchResult.getFailed().isEmpty()) { final int n = batchResult.getFailed().size(); log.warn("Producer: retrying deleting " + n + " messages"); for (BatchResultErrorEntry e : batchResult .getFailed()) { sqsClient.deleteMessage( new DeleteMessageRequest(queueUrl, messages.get(Integer .parseInt(e.getId())) .getReceiptHandle())); consumedCount.incrementAndGet(); } } } } } catch (AmazonClientException e) { /* * By default, AmazonSQSClient retries calls 3 times before * failing. If this unlikely condition occurs, stop. */ log.error("BatchConsumer: " + e.getMessage()); System.exit(1); } } } /** * This thread prints every second the number of messages produced and * consumed so far. */ private static class Monitor extends Thread { private final AtomicInteger producedCount; private final AtomicInteger consumedCount; private final AtomicBoolean stop; Monitor(AtomicInteger producedCount, AtomicInteger consumedCount, AtomicBoolean stop) { this.producedCount = producedCount; this.consumedCount = consumedCount; this.stop = stop; } public void run() { try { while (!stop.get()) { Thread.sleep(1000); log.info("produced messages = " + producedCount.get() + ", consumed messages = " + consumedCount.get()); } } catch (InterruptedException e) { // Allow the thread to exit. } } } }

Monitoring Volume Metrics from the Example Run

Amazon SQS automatically generates volume metrics for sent, received, and deleted messages. You can access those metrics and others through the Monitoring tab for your queue or on the CloudWatch console.

Note

The metrics can take up to 15 minutes after the queue starts to become available.