Performing miscellaneous tasks for Oracle DB instances - Amazon Relational Database Service

Performing miscellaneous tasks for Oracle DB instances

Following, you can find how to perform miscellaneous DBA tasks on your Amazon RDS DB instances running Oracle. To deliver a managed service experience, Amazon RDS doesn't provide shell access to DB instances, and restricts access to certain system procedures and tables that require advanced privileges.

Creating and dropping directories in the main data storage space

To create directories, use the Amazon RDS procedure rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.create_directory. You can create up to 10,000 directories, all located in your main data storage space. To drop directories, use the Amazon RDS procedure rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.drop_directory.

The create_directory and drop_directory procedures have the following required parameter.

Parameter name Data type Default Required Description

p_directory_name

varchar2

Yes

The name of the directory.

The following example creates a new directory named PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS.

exec rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.create_directory(p_directory_name => 'product_descriptions');

The data dictionary stores the directory name in uppercase. You can list the directories by querying DBA_DIRECTORIES. The system chooses the actual host pathname automatically. The following example gets the directory path for the directory named PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS:

SELECT DIRECTORY_PATH FROM DBA_DIRECTORIES WHERE DIRECTORY_NAME='PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS'; DIRECTORY_PATH ---------------------------------------- /rdsdbdata/userdirs/01

The master user name for the DB instance has read and write privileges in the new directory, and can grant access to other users. EXECUTE privileges are not available for directories on a DB instance. Directories are created in your main data storage space and will consume space and I/O bandwidth.

The following example drops the directory named PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS.

exec rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.drop_directory(p_directory_name => 'product_descriptions');
Note

You can also drop a directory by using the Oracle SQL command DROP DIRECTORY.

Dropping a directory doesn't remove its contents. Because the rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.create_directory procedure can reuse pathnames, files in dropped directories can appear in a newly created directory. Before you drop a directory, we recommend that you use UTL_FILE.FREMOVE to remove files from the directory. For more information, see FREMOVE procedure in the Oracle documentation.

Listing files in a DB instance directory

To list the files in a directory, use the Amazon RDS procedure rdsadmin.rds_file_util.listdir. The listdir procedure has the following parameters.

Parameter name Data type Default Required Description

p_directory

varchar2

Yes

The name of the directory to list.

The following example lists the files in the directory named PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS.

SELECT * FROM TABLE(rdsadmin.rds_file_util.listdir(p_directory => 'PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS'));

Reading files in a DB instance directory

To read a text file, use the Amazon RDS procedure rdsadmin.rds_file_util.read_text_file. The read_text_file procedure has the following parameters.

Parameter name Data type Default Required Description

p_directory

varchar2

Yes

The name of the directory that contains the file.

p_filename

varchar2

Yes

The name of the file to read.

The following example creates the file rice.txt in the directory PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS.

declare fh sys.utl_file.file_type; begin fh := utl_file.fopen(location=>'PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS', filename=>'rice.txt', open_mode=>'w'); utl_file.put(file=>fh, buffer=>'AnyCompany brown rice, 15 lbs'); utl_file.fclose(file=>fh); end; /

The following example reads the file rice.txt from the directory PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS.

SELECT * FROM TABLE (rdsadmin.rds_file_util.read_text_file( p_directory => 'PRODUCT_DESCRIPTIONS', p_filename => 'rice.txt'));

Accessing Opatch files

Opatch is an Oracle utility that enables the application and rollback of patches to Oracle software. The Oracle mechanism for determining which patches have been applied to a database is the opatch lsinventory command. To open service requests for Bring Your Own Licence (BYOL) customers, Oracle Support requests the lsinventory file and sometimes the lsinventory_detail file generated by Opatch.

To deliver a managed service experience, Amazon RDS doesn't provide shell access to Opatch. Instead, the Oracle DB instance automatically creates the inventory files every hour in the BDUMP directory. You have read and write access on this directory. If you don't see your files in BDUMP, or the files are out of date, wait an hour and then try again.

Note

The examples in this section assume that the BDUMP directory is named BDUMP. On a read replica, the BDUMP directory name is different. To learn how to get the BDUMP name by querying V$DATABASE.DB_UNIQUE_NAME on a read replica, see Listing files.

The inventory files use the Amazon RDS naming convention lsinventory-dbv.txt and lsinventory_detail-dbv.txt, where dbv is the full name of your DB version. The lsinventory-dbv.txt file is available on all DB versions. The corresponding detail file is available on the following DB versions:

  • 19.0.0.0, ru-2020-01.rur-2020-01.r1 or later

  • 18.0.0.0, ru-2020-01.rur-2020-01.r1 or later

  • 12.2.0.1, ru-2020-01.rur-2020-01.r1 or later

  • 12.1.0.2, v19 or later

  • 11.2.0.4, v23 or later

For example, if your DB version is 19.0.0.0.ru-2020-04.rur-2020-04.r1, then your inventory files have the following names.

lsinventory-19.0.0.0.ru-2020-04.rur-2020-04.r1.txt lsinventory_detail-19.0.0.0.ru-2020-04.rur-2020-04.r1.txt

Ensure that you download the files that match the current version of your DB engine.

To download an inventory file using the console

  1. Open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Databases.

  3. Choose the name of the DB instance that has the log file that you want to view.

  4. Choose the Logs & events tab.

  5. Scroll down to the Logs section.

  6. In the Logs section, search for lsinventory.

  7. Select the file that you want to access, and then choose Download.

To read the lsinventory-dbv.txt in a SQL client, you can use a SELECT statement. For this technique, use either of the following rdsadmin functions: rdsadmin.rds_file_util.read_text_file or rdsadmin.tracefile_listing.

In the following sample query, replace dbv with your Oracle DB version. For example, your DB version might be 19.0.0.0.ru-2020-04.rur-2020-04.r1.

SELECT text FROM TABLE(rdsadmin.rds_file_util.read_text_file('BDUMP', 'lsinventory-dbv.txt'));

To read the lsinventory-dbv.txt in a SQL client, you can write a PL/SQL program. This program uses utl_file to read the file, and dbms_output to print it. These are Oracle-supplied packages.

In the following sample program, replace dbv with your Oracle DB version. For example, your DB version might be 19.0.0.0.ru-2020-04.rur-2020-04.r1.

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON DECLARE v_file SYS.UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; v_line VARCHAR2(1000); v_oracle_home_type VARCHAR2(1000); c_directory VARCHAR2(30) := 'BDUMP'; c_output_file VARCHAR2(30) := 'lsinventory-dbv.txt'; BEGIN v_file := SYS.UTL_FILE.FOPEN(c_directory, c_output_file, 'r'); LOOP BEGIN SYS.UTL_FILE.GET_LINE(v_file, v_line,1000); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v_line); EXCEPTION WHEN no_data_found THEN EXIT; END; END LOOP; END; /

Or query rdsadmin.tracefile_listing, and spool the output to a file. The following example spools the output to /tmp/tracefile.txt.

SPOOL /tmp/tracefile.txt SELECT * FROM rdsadmin.tracefile_listing WHERE FILENAME LIKE 'lsinventory%'; SPOOL OFF;

Managing advisor tasks

Oracle Database includes a number of advisors. Each advisor supports automated and manual tasks. You can use procedures in the rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util package to manage some advisor tasks.

The advisor task procedures are available in the following engine versions:

Setting parameters for advisor tasks

To set parameters for some advisor tasks, use the Amazon RDS procedure rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.advisor_task_set_parameter. The advisor_task_set_parameter procedure has the following parameters.

Parameter name Data type Default Required Description

p_task_name

varchar2

Yes

The name of the advisor task whose parameters you want to change. The following values are valid:

  • AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK

  • INDIVIDUAL_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK

  • SYS_AUTO_SPM_EVOLVE_TASK

  • SYS_AUTO_SQL_TUNING_TASK

p_parameter

varchar2

Yes

The name of the task parameter. To find valid parameters for an advisor task, run the following query. Substitute p_task_name with a valid value for p_task_name:

COL PARAMETER_NAME FORMAT a30 COL PARAMETER_VALUE FORMAT a30 SELECT PARAMETER_NAME, PARAMETER_VALUE FROM DBA_ADVISOR_PARAMETERS WHERE TASK_NAME='p_task_name' AND PARAMETER_VALUE != 'UNUSED' ORDER BY PARAMETER_NAME;

p_value

varchar2

Yes

The value for a task parameter. To find valid values for task parameters, run the following query. Substitute p_task_name with a valid value for p_task_name:

COL PARAMETER_NAME FORMAT a30 COL PARAMETER_VALUE FORMAT a30 SELECT PARAMETER_NAME, PARAMETER_VALUE FROM DBA_ADVISOR_PARAMETERS WHERE TASK_NAME='p_task_name' AND PARAMETER_VALUE != 'UNUSED' ORDER BY PARAMETER_NAME;

The following PL/SQL program sets ACCEPT_PLANS to FALSE for SYS_AUTO_SPM_EVOLVE_TASK. The SQL Plan Management automated task verifies the plans and generates a report of its findings, but does not evolve the plans automatically. You can use a report to identify new SQL plan baselines and accept them manually.

BEGIN rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.advisor_task_set_parameter( p_task_name => 'SYS_AUTO_SPM_EVOLVE_TASK', p_parameter => 'ACCEPT_PLANS', p_value => 'FALSE'); END;

The following PL/SQL program sets EXECUTION_DAYS_TO_EXPIRE to 10 for AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK. The predefined task AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK runs automatically in the maintenance window once per day. The example sets the retention period for the task execution to 10 days.

BEGIN rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.advisor_task_set_parameter( p_task_name => 'AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK', p_parameter => 'EXECUTION_DAYS_TO_EXPIRE', p_value => '10'); END;

Disabling AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK

To disable AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK, use the Amazon RDS procedure rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.advisor_task_drop. The advisor_task_drop procedure accepts the following parameter.

Note

This procedure is available in Oracle Database version 12.2.0.1 and later.

Parameter name Data type Default Required Description

p_task_name

varchar2

Yes

The name of the advisor task to be disabled. The only valid value is AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK.

The following command drops AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK.

EXEC rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.advisor_task_drop('AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK')

You can re-enabling AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK using rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.dbms_stats_init.

Re-enabling AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK

To re-enable AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK, use the Amazon RDS procedure rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.dbms_stats_init. The dbms_stats_init procedure takes no parameters.

The following command re-enables AUTO_STATS_ADVISOR_TASK.

EXEC rdsadmin.rdsadmin_util.dbms_stats_init()