Amazon Relational Database Service
User Guide

Modifying a DB Instance Running the Oracle Database Engine

You can change the settings of a DB instance to accomplish tasks such as adding additional storage or changing the DB instance class. In this topic, you learn how to modify an Amazon RDS Oracle DB instance, and about the settings for Oracle instances. We recommend that you test any changes on a test instance before modifying a production instance, so that you fully understand the impact of each change. This practice is especially important when upgrading database versions.

After you modify your DB instance settings, you can apply the changes immediately, or apply them during the next maintenance window for the DB instance. Some modifications cause an interruption by restarting the DB instance.

In addition to modifying Oracle instances as described directly following, you can also change settings for sqlnet.ora parameters for an Oracle DB instance as described in Modifying Oracle sqlnet.ora Parameters, at the end of this topic.

Console

To modify an Oracle DB instance

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon RDS console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/rds/.

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Databases, and then choose the DB instance that you want to modify.

  3. Choose Modify. The Modify DB Instance page appears.

  4. Change any of the settings that you want. For information about each setting, see Settings for Oracle DB Instances.

  5. When all the changes are as you want them, choose Continue and check the summary of modifications.

  6. To apply the changes immediately, choose Apply immediately. Choosing this option can cause an outage in some cases. For more information, see Using the Apply Immediately Parameter.

  7. On the confirmation page, review your changes. If they are correct, choose Modify DB Instance to save your changes.

    Alternatively, choose Back to edit your changes, or choose Cancel to cancel your changes.

AWS CLI

To modify an Oracle DB instance by using the AWS CLI, call the modify-db-instance command. Specify the DB instance identifier, and the parameters for the settings that you want to modify. For information about each parameter, see Settings for Oracle DB Instances.

Example

The following code modifies mydbinstance by setting the backup retention period to 1 week (7 days). The code enables automatic minor version upgrades by using --auto-minor-version-upgrade. To disable automatic minor version upgrades, use --no-auto-minor-version-upgrade. The changes are applied during the next maintenance window by using --no-apply-immediately. Use --apply-immediately to apply the changes immediately. For more information, see Using the Apply Immediately Parameter.

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds modify-db-instance \ --db-instance-identifier mydbinstance \ --backup-retention-period 7 \ --auto-minor-version-upgrade \ --no-apply-immediately

For Windows:

aws rds modify-db-instance ^ --db-instance-identifier mydbinstance ^ --backup-retention-period 7 ^ --auto-minor-version-upgrade ^ --no-apply-immediately
RDS API

To modify an Oracle DB instance by using the Amazon RDS API, call the ModifyDBInstance operation. Specify the DB instance identifier, and the parameters for the settings that you want to modify. For information about each parameter, see Settings for Oracle DB Instances.

Example

The following code modifies mydbinstance by setting the backup retention period to 1 week (7 days) and enabling automatic minor version upgrades. These changes are applied during the next maintenance window.

https://rds.amazonaws.com/ ?Action=ModifyDBInstance &ApplyImmediately=false &AutoMinorVersionUpgrade=true &BackupRetentionPeriod=7 &DBInstanceIdentifier=mydbinstance &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256 &SignatureVersion=4 &Version=2014-10-31 &X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 &X-Amz-Credential=AKIADQKE4SARGYLE/20131016/us-west-1/rds/aws4_request &X-Amz-Date=20131016T233051Z &X-Amz-SignedHeaders=content-type;host;user-agent;x-amz-content-sha256;x-amz-date &X-Amz-Signature=087a8eb41cb1ab0fc9ec1575f23e73757ffc6a1e42d7d2b30b9cc0be988cff97

Settings for Oracle DB Instances

The following table contains details about which settings you can modify, which settings you can't modify, when the changes can be applied, and whether the changes cause downtime for the DB instance.

Setting Setting Description When the Change Occurs Downtime Notes

Allocated storage

The storage, in gigabytes, that you want to allocate for your DB instance. You can only increase the allocated storage, you can't reduce the allocated storage.

You can't modify allocated storage if the DB instance status is storage-optimization or if the allocated storage for the DB instance has been modified in the last six hours.

The maximum storage allowed depends on the storage type. For more information, see Amazon RDS DB Instance Storage.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

No downtime. Performance might be degraded during the change.

Auto minor version upgrade

Enable auto minor version upgrade to enable your DB instance to receive preferred minor DB engine version upgrades automatically when they become available. Amazon RDS performs automatic minor version upgrades in the maintenance window.

Backup retention period

The number of days that automatic backups are retained. To disable automatic backups, set the backup retention period to 0.

For more information, see Working With Backups.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false and you change the setting from a nonzero value to another nonzero value, the change is applied asynchronously, as soon as possible. Otherwise, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

An outage occurs if you change from 0 to a nonzero value, or from a nonzero value to 0.

Backup window

The time range during which automated backups of your databases occur. The backup window is a start time in Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), and a duration in hours.

For more information, see Working With Backups.

The change is applied asynchronously, as soon as possible.

Certificate authority

The certificate that you want to use.

If Apply Immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply Immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

An outage occurs during this change.

Copy tags to snapshots

If you have any DB instance tags, this option copies them when you create a DB snapshot.

For more information, see Tagging Amazon RDS Resources.

The change occurs immediately. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

Database authentication

The database authentication option you want to use.

Choose Password authentication to authenticate database users with database passwords only.

Choose Password and Kerberos authentication to authenticate database users with database passwords and Kerberos authentication through an AWS Managed Microsoft AD created with AWS Directory Service. Next, choose the directory or choose Create a new Directory. For more information, see Using Kerberos Authentication with Amazon RDS for Oracle.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

When you enable Password and Kerberos authentication, a brief outage occurs.

Database port

The port that you want to use to access the database.

The port value must not match any of the port values specified for options in the option group for the DB instance.

The change occurs immediately. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

The DB instance is rebooted immediately.

DB engine version

The version of the Oracle database engine that you want to use. Before you upgrade your production DB instances, we recommend that you test the upgrade process on a test instance to verify its duration and to validate your applications.

We do not recommend upgrading micro DB instances because they have limited CPU resources and the upgrade process may take hours to complete. An alternative to upgrading micro DB instances with small storage (10-20 GiB) is to copy your data using Data Pump, where we also recommend testing before migrating your production instances.

For more information, see Upgrading the Oracle DB Engine.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

An outage occurs during this change.

DB instance class

The DB instance class that you want to use.

For more information, see Choosing the DB Instance Class and DB Instance Class Support for Oracle.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

An outage occurs during this change.

DB instance identifier

The DB instance identifier. This value is stored as a lowercase string.

For more information about the effects of renaming a DB instance, see Renaming a DB Instance.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

An outage occurs during this change. The DB instance is rebooted.

DB parameter group

The parameter group that you want associated with the DB instance.

For more information, see Working with DB Parameter Groups and Modifying Oracle sqlnet.ora Parameters.

The parameter group change occurs immediately.

An outage doesn't occur during this change. When you change the parameter group, changes to some parameters are applied to the DB instance immediately without a reboot. Changes to other parameters are applied only after the DB instance is rebooted.

For more information, see Rebooting a DB Instance.

Deletion protection

Enable deletion protection to prevent your DB instance from being deleted.

For more information, see Deleting a DB Instance.

Enhanced Monitoring

Enable enhanced monitoring to enable gathering metrics in real time for the operating system that your DB instance runs on.

For more information, see Enhanced Monitoring.

License model

license-included to use the general license agreement for Oracle. bring-your-own-license to use your existing Oracle license.

For more information, see Oracle Licensing.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

An outage occurs during this change.

Log exports

The types of Oracle database log files to publish to Amazon CloudWatch Logs.

For more information, see Oracle Database Log Files.

The change occurs immediately. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

Maintenance Window

The time range during which system maintenance occurs. System maintenance includes upgrades, if applicable. The maintenance window is a start time in Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), and a duration in hours.

If you set the window to the current time, there must be at least 30 minutes between the current time and end of the window to ensure any pending changes are applied.

For more information, see The Amazon RDS Maintenance Window.

The change occurs immediately. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

If there are one or more pending actions that cause an outage, and the maintenance window is changed to include the current time, then those pending actions are applied immediately, and an outage occurs.

Multi-AZ deployment

Yes to deploy your DB instance in multiple Availability Zones. Otherwise, No.

For more information, see Regions and Availability Zones.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

New master password

The password for your master user. The password must contain from 8 to 30 alphanumeric characters.

The change is applied asynchronously, as soon as possible. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

Option group

The option group that you want associated with the DB instance.

For more information, see Working with Option Groups.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

When you add the APEX options to an existing DB instance, a brief outage occurs while your DB instance is automatically restarted.

When you add the OEM option to an existing DB instance, the change can cause a brief (sub-second) period during which new connections are rejected. Existing connections are not interrupted.

Performance Insights

Enable Performance Insights to monitor your DB instance load so that you can analyze and troubleshoot your database performance.

Choose a retention period to determine how much rolling data history to keep. The default of seven days is in the free tier. Long-term retention (two years) is priced per vCPU per month.

You can't change the master key after the database is created.

For more information, see Using Amazon RDS Performance Insights.

The change occurs immediately. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

Public accessibility

Yes to give the DB instance a public IP address, meaning that it's accessible outside the VPC. To be publicly accessible, the DB instance also has to be in a public subnet in the VPC.

No to make the DB instance accessible only from inside the VPC.

For more information, see Hiding a DB Instance in a VPC from the Internet.

The change occurs immediately. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

Security group

The security group that you want associated with the DB instance.

For more information, see Working with DB Security Groups (EC2-Classic Platform).

The change is applied asynchronously, as soon as possible. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

Storage autoscaling

Enable storage autoscaling to enable Amazon RDS to automatically increase storage when needed to avoid having your DB instance run out of storage space.

Use Maximum storage threshold to set the upper limit for Amazon RDS to automatically increase storage for your DB instance. The default is 1,000 GiB.

For more information, see Managing Capacity Automatically with Amazon RDS Storage Autoscaling.

The change occurs immediately. This setting ignores the Apply immediately setting.

Storage type

The storage type that you want to use.

For more information, see Amazon RDS Storage Types.

If Apply immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

The following changes all result in a brief outage while the process starts. After that, you can use your database normally while the change takes place.

  • From General Purpose (SSD) to Magnetic.

  • From General Purpose (SSD) to Provisioned IOPS (SSD). The outage only happens if the DB instance is single-AZ and you are using a custom parameter group. There is no outage for a multi-AZ DB instance.

  • From Magnetic to General Purpose (SSD).

  • From Magnetic to Provisioned IOPS (SSD).

  • From Provisioned IOPS (SSD) to Magnetic.

  • From Provisioned IOPS (SSD) to General Purpose (SSD). The outage only happens if the DB instance is single-AZ and you are using a custom parameter group. There is no outage for a multi-AZ DB instance.

Subnet group

The subnet group for the DB instance. You can use this setting to move your DB instance to a different VPC. If your DB instance isn't in a VPC, you can use this setting to move your DB instance into a VPC.

For more information, see Moving a DB Instance Not in a VPC into a VPC.

If Apply Immediately is set to true, the change occurs immediately.

If Apply Immediately is set to false, the change occurs during the next maintenance window.

An outage occurs during this change. The DB instance is rebooted.

Modifying Oracle sqlnet.ora Parameters

The sqlnet.ora file includes parameters that configure Oracle Net features on Oracle database servers and clients. Using the parameters in the sqlnet.ora file, you can modify properties for connections in and out of the database.

For more information about why you might set sqlnet.ora parameters, see Configuring Profile Parameters in the Oracle documentation.

Setting sqlnet.ora Parameters

Amazon RDS Oracle parameter groups include a subset of sqlnet.ora parameters. You set them in the same way that you set other Oracle parameters. The sqlnetora. prefix identifies which parameters are sqlnet.ora parameters. For example, in an Oracle parameter group in Amazon RDS, the default_sdu_size sqlnet.ora parameter is sqlnetora.default_sdu_size.

For information about managing parameter groups and setting parameter values, see Working with DB Parameter Groups.

Supported sqlnet.ora Parameters

Amazon RDS supports the following sqlnet.ora parameters. Changes to dynamic sqlnet.ora parameters take effect immediately.

Parameter Valid Values Static/Dynamic Description

sqlnetora.default_sdu_size

Oracle 11g – 512 to 65535

Oracle 12c – 512 to 2097152

Dynamic

The session data unit (SDU) size, in bytes.

The SDU is the amount of data that is put in a buffer and sent across the network at one time.

sqlnetora.diag_adr_enabled

ON, OFF

Dynamic

A value that enables or disables Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) tracing.

ON specifies that ADR file tracing is used.

OFF specifies that non-ADR file tracing is used.

sqlnetora.recv_buf_size

8192 to 268435456

Dynamic

The buffer space limit for receive operations of sessions, supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP protocols.

sqlnetora.send_buf_size

8192 to 268435456

Dynamic

The buffer space limit for send operations of sessions, supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP protocols.

sqlnetora.sqlnet.allowed_logon_version_client

8, 10, 11, 12

Dynamic

Minimum authentication protocol version allowed for clients, and servers acting as clients, to establish a connection to Oracle DB instances.

sqlnetora.sqlnet.allowed_logon_version_server

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12a

Dynamic

Minimum authentication protocol version allowed to establish a connection to Oracle DB instances.

sqlnetora.sqlnet.expire_time

0 to 1440

Dynamic

Time interval, in minutes, to send a check to verify that client-server connections are active.

sqlnetora.sqlnet.inbound_connect_timeout

0 or 10 to 7200

Dynamic

Time, in seconds, for a client to connect with the database server and provide the necessary authentication information.

sqlnetora.sqlnet.outbound_connect_timeout

0 or 10 to 7200

Dynamic

Time, in seconds, for a client to establish an Oracle Net connection to the DB instance.

sqlnetora.sqlnet.recv_timeout

0 or 10 to 7200

Dynamic

Time, in seconds, for a database server to wait for client data after establishing a connection.

sqlnetora.sqlnet.send_timeout

0 or 10 to 7200

Dynamic

Time, in seconds, for a database server to complete a send operation to clients after establishing a connection.

sqlnetora.tcp.connect_timeout

0 or 10 to 7200

Dynamic

Time, in seconds, for a client to establish a TCP connection to the database server.

sqlnetora.trace_level_server

0, 4, 10, 16, OFF, USER, ADMIN, SUPPORT

Dynamic

For non-ADR tracing, turns server tracing on at a specified level or turns it off.

The default value for each supported sqlnet.ora parameter is the Oracle default for the release. For information about default values for Oracle 12c, see Parameters for the sqlnet.ora File in the 12c Oracle documentation. For information about default values for Oracle 11g, see Parameters for the sqlnet.ora File in the 11g Oracle documentation.

Viewing sqlnet.ora Parameters

You can view sqlnet.ora parameters and their settings using the AWS Management Console, the AWS CLI, or a SQL client.

Viewing sqlnet.ora Parameters Using the Console

For information about viewing parameters in a parameter group, see Working with DB Parameter Groups.

In Oracle parameter groups, the sqlnetora. prefix identifies which parameters are sqlnet.ora parameters.

Viewing sqlnet.ora Parameters Using the AWS CLI

To view the sqlnet.ora parameters that were configured in an Oracle parameter group, use the AWS CLI describe-db-parameters command.

To view the all of the sqlnet.ora parameters for an Oracle DB instance, call the AWS CLI download-db-log-file-portion command. Specify the DB instance identifier, the log file name, and the type of output.

Example

The following code lists all of the sqlnet.ora parameters for mydbinstance.

For Linux, OS X, or Unix:

aws rds download-db-log-file-portion \ --db-instance-identifier mydbinstance \ --log-file-name trace/sqlnet-parameters \ --output text

For Windows:

aws rds download-db-log-file-portion ^ --db-instance-identifier mydbinstance ^ --log-file-name trace/sqlnet-parameters ^ --output text

Viewing sqlnet.ora Parameters Using a SQL Client

After you connect to the Oracle DB instance in a SQL client, the following query lists the sqlnet.ora parameters.

SELECT * FROM TABLE (rdsadmin.rds_file_util.read_text_file( p_directory => 'BDUMP', p_filename => 'sqlnet-parameters'));

For information about connecting to an Oracle DB instance in a SQL client, see Connecting to a DB Instance Running the Oracle Database Engine.