Request routing - Amazon Simple Storage Service

Welcome to the new Amazon S3 User Guide! The Amazon S3 User Guide combines information and instructions from the three retired guides: Amazon S3 Developer Guide, Amazon S3 Console User Guide, and Amazon S3 Getting Started Guide.

Request routing

Programs that make requests against buckets created using the <CreateBucketConfiguration> API must support redirects. Additionally, some clients that do not respect DNS TTLs might encounter issues.

This section describes routing and DNS issues to consider when designing your service or application for use with Amazon S3.

Request redirection and the REST API

Amazon S3 uses the Domain Name System (DNS) to route requests to facilities that can process them. This system works effectively, but temporary routing errors can occur. If a request arrives at the wrong Amazon S3 location, Amazon S3 responds with a temporary redirect that tells the requester to resend the request to a new endpoint. If a request is incorrectly formed, Amazon S3 uses permanent redirects to provide direction on how to perform the request correctly.

Important

To use this feature, you must have an application that can handle Amazon S3 redirect responses. The only exception is for applications that work exclusively with buckets that were created without <CreateBucketConfiguration>. For more information about location constraints, see Accessing a bucket.

For all Regions that launched after March 20, 2019, if a request arrives at the wrong Amazon S3 location, Amazon S3 returns an HTTP 400 Bad Request error.

For more information about enabling or disabling an AWS Region, see AWS Regions and Endpoints in the AWS General Reference.

DNS routing

DNS routing routes requests to appropriate Amazon S3 facilities. The following figure and procedure show an example of DNS routing.


				Diagram showing steps that occur when a DNS server routes requests from the
					client to facility B.

DNS routing request steps

  1. The client makes a DNS request to get an object stored on Amazon S3.

  2. The client receives one or more IP addresses for facilities that can process the request. In this example, the IP address is for Facility B.

  3. The client makes a request to Amazon S3 Facility B.

  4. Facility B returns a copy of the object to the client.

Temporary request redirection

A temporary redirect is a type of error response that signals to the requester that they should resend the request to a different endpoint. Due to the distributed nature of Amazon S3, requests can be temporarily routed to the wrong facility. This is most likely to occur immediately after buckets are created or deleted.

For example, if you create a new bucket and immediately make a request to the bucket, you might receive a temporary redirect, depending on the location constraint of the bucket. If you created the bucket in the US East (N. Virginia) AWS Region, you will not see the redirect because this is also the default Amazon S3 endpoint.

However, if the bucket is created in any other Region, any requests for the bucket go to the default endpoint while the bucket's DNS entry is propagated. The default endpoint redirects the request to the correct endpoint with an HTTP 302 response. Temporary redirects contain a URI to the correct facility, which you can use to immediately resend the request.

Important

Don't reuse an endpoint provided by a previous redirect response. It might appear to work (even for long periods of time), but it might provide unpredictable results and will eventually fail without notice.

The following figure and procedure shows an example of a temporary redirect.


				Diagram showing steps that occur when a client sends a request to B and is
					redirected to C.

Temporary request redirection steps

  1. The client makes a DNS request to get an object stored on Amazon S3.

  2. The client receives one or more IP addresses for facilities that can process the request.

  3. The client makes a request to Amazon S3 Facility B.

  4. Facility B returns a redirect indicating the object is available from Location C.

  5. The client resends the request to Facility C.

  6. Facility C returns a copy of the object.

Permanent request redirection

A permanent redirect indicates that your request addressed a resource inappropriately. For example, permanent redirects occur if you use a path-style request to access a bucket that was created using <CreateBucketConfiguration>. For more information, see Accessing a bucket.

To help you find these errors during development, this type of redirect does not contain a Location HTTP header that allows you to automatically follow the request to the correct location. Consult the resulting XML error document for help using the correct Amazon S3 endpoint.

Request redirection examples

The following are examples of temporary request redirection responses.

REST API temporary redirect response

HTTP/1.1 307 Temporary Redirect Location: http://awsexamplebucket1.s3-gztb4pa9sq.amazonaws.com/photos/puppy.jpg?rk=e2c69a31 Content-Type: application/xml Transfer-Encoding: chunked Date: Fri, 12 Oct 2007 01:12:56 GMT Server: AmazonS3 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <Error> <Code>TemporaryRedirect</Code> <Message>Please re-send this request to the specified temporary endpoint. Continue to use the original request endpoint for future requests.</Message> <Endpoint>awsexamplebucket1.s3-gztb4pa9sq.amazonaws.com</Endpoint> </Error>

SOAP API temporary redirect response

Note

SOAP support over HTTP is deprecated, but it is still available over HTTPS. New Amazon S3 features will not be supported for SOAP. We recommend that you use either the REST API or the AWS SDKs.

<soapenv:Body> <soapenv:Fault> <Faultcode>soapenv:Client.TemporaryRedirect</Faultcode> <Faultstring>Please re-send this request to the specified temporary endpoint. Continue to use the original request endpoint for future requests.</Faultstring> <Detail> <Bucket>images</Bucket> <Endpoint>s3-gztb4pa9sq.amazonaws.com</Endpoint> </Detail> </soapenv:Fault> </soapenv:Body>

DNS considerations

One of the design requirements of Amazon S3 is extremely high availability. One of the ways we meet this requirement is by updating the IP addresses associated with the Amazon S3 endpoint in DNS as needed. These changes are automatically reflected in short-lived clients, but not in some long-lived clients. Long-lived clients will need to take special action to re-resolve the Amazon S3 endpoint periodically to benefit from these changes. For more information about virtual machines (VMs), refer to the following:

  • For Java, Sun's JVM caches DNS lookups forever by default; go to the "InetAddress Caching" section of the InetAddress documentation for information on how to change this behavior.

  • For PHP, the persistent PHP VM that runs in the most popular deployment configurations caches DNS lookups until the VM is restarted. Go to the getHostByName PHP docs.