Amazon API Gateway Construct Library

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Amazon API Gateway is a fully managed service that makes it easy for developers to publish, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs at any scale. Create an API to access data, business logic, or functionality from your back-end services, such as applications running on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), code running on AWS Lambda, or any web application.

Defining APIs

APIs are defined as a hierarchy of resources and methods. addResource and addMethod can be used to build this hierarchy. The root resource is api.root.

For example, the following code defines an API that includes the following HTTP endpoints: ANY /, GET /books, POST /books, GET /books/{book_id}, DELETE /books/{book_id}.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "books-api")

api.root.add_method("ANY")

books = api.root.add_resource("books")
books.add_method("GET")
books.add_method("POST")

book = books.add_resource("{book_id}")
book.add_method("GET")
book.add_method("DELETE")

AWS Lambda-backed APIs

A very common practice is to use Amazon API Gateway with AWS Lambda as the backend integration. The LambdaRestApi construct makes it easy:

The following code defines a REST API that routes all requests to the specified AWS Lambda function:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
backend = lambda.Function(...)
apigateway.LambdaRestApi(self, "myapi",
    handler=backend
)

You can also supply proxy: false, in which case you will have to explicitly define the API model:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
backend = lambda.Function(...)
api = apigateway.LambdaRestApi(self, "myapi",
    handler=backend,
    proxy=False
)

items = api.root.add_resource("items")
items.add_method("GET")# GET /items
items.add_method("POST")# POST /items

item = items.add_resource("{item}")
item.add_method("GET")# GET /items/{item}

# the default integration for methods is "handler", but one can
# customize this behavior per method or even a sub path.
item.add_method("DELETE", apigateway.HttpIntegration("http://amazon.com"))

Breaking up Methods and Resources across Stacks

It is fairly common for REST APIs with a large number of Resources and Methods to hit the CloudFormation limit of 200 resources per stack.

To help with this, Resources and Methods for the same REST API can be re-organized across multiple stacks. A common way to do this is to have a stack per Resource or groups of Resources, but this is not the only possible way. The following example uses sets up two Resources ‘/pets’ and ‘/books’ in separate stacks using nested stacks:

# Example automatically generated. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
from aws_cdk.core import App, CfnOutput, Construct, NestedStack, NestedStackProps, Stack
from ...lib import Deployment, Method, MockIntegration, PassthroughBehavior, RestApi, Stage

#
# This file showcases how to split up a RestApi's Resources and Methods across nested stacks.
#
# The root stack 'RootStack' first defines a RestApi.
# Two nested stacks BooksStack and PetsStack, create corresponding Resources '/books' and '/pets'.
# They are then deployed to a 'prod' Stage via a third nested stack - DeployStack.
#
# To verify this worked, go to the APIGateway
#

class RootStack(Stack):
    def __init__(self, scope):
        super().__init__(scope, "integ-restapi-import-RootStack")

        rest_api = RestApi(self, "RestApi",
            deploy=False
        )
        rest_api.root.add_method("ANY")

        pets_stack = PetsStack(self,
            rest_api_id=rest_api.rest_api_id,
            root_resource_id=rest_api.rest_api_root_resource_id
        )
        books_stack = BooksStack(self,
            rest_api_id=rest_api.rest_api_id,
            root_resource_id=rest_api.rest_api_root_resource_id
        )
        DeployStack(self,
            rest_api_id=rest_api.rest_api_id,
            methods=[(SpreadElement ...petsStack.methods
              pets_stack.methods), (SpreadElement ...booksStack.methods
              books_stack.methods)]
        )

        CfnOutput(self, "PetsURL",
            value=f"https://{restApi.restApiId}.execute-api.{this.region}.amazonaws.com/prod/pets"
        )

        CfnOutput(self, "BooksURL",
            value=f"https://{restApi.restApiId}.execute-api.{this.region}.amazonaws.com/prod/books"
        )

class PetsStack(NestedStack):

    def __init__(self, scope, *, restApiId, rootResourceId, parameters=None, timeout=None, notificationArns=None):
        super().__init__(scope, "integ-restapi-import-PetsStack", restApiId=restApiId, rootResourceId=rootResourceId, parameters=parameters, timeout=timeout, notificationArns=notificationArns)

        api = RestApi.from_rest_api_attributes(self, "RestApi",
            rest_api_id=rest_api_id,
            root_resource_id=root_resource_id
        )

        method = api.root.add_resource("pets").add_method("GET", MockIntegration({
            "integration_responses": [{
                "status_code": "200"
            }],
            "passthrough_behavior": PassthroughBehavior.NEVER,
            "request_templates": {
                "application/json": "{ "statusCode": 200 }"
            }
        }),
            method_responses=[MethodResponse(status_code="200")]
        )

        self.methods.push(method)

class BooksStack(NestedStack):

    def __init__(self, scope, *, restApiId, rootResourceId, parameters=None, timeout=None, notificationArns=None):
        super().__init__(scope, "integ-restapi-import-BooksStack", restApiId=restApiId, rootResourceId=rootResourceId, parameters=parameters, timeout=timeout, notificationArns=notificationArns)

        api = RestApi.from_rest_api_attributes(self, "RestApi",
            rest_api_id=rest_api_id,
            root_resource_id=root_resource_id
        )

        method = api.root.add_resource("books").add_method("GET", MockIntegration({
            "integration_responses": [{
                "status_code": "200"
            }],
            "passthrough_behavior": PassthroughBehavior.NEVER,
            "request_templates": {
                "application/json": "{ "statusCode": 200 }"
            }
        }),
            method_responses=[MethodResponse(status_code="200")]
        )

        self.methods.push(method)

class DeployStack(NestedStack):
    def __init__(self, scope, *, restApiId, methods=None, parameters=None, timeout=None, notificationArns=None):
        super().__init__(scope, "integ-restapi-import-DeployStack", restApiId=restApiId, methods=methods, parameters=parameters, timeout=timeout, notificationArns=notificationArns)

        deployment = Deployment(self, "Deployment",
            api=RestApi.from_rest_api_id(self, "RestApi", rest_api_id)
        )
        (methods ?? []).for_each((method) => deployment.node.addDependency(method))
        Stage(self, "Stage", deployment=deployment)

RootStack(App())

Integration Targets

Methods are associated with backend integrations, which are invoked when this method is called. API Gateway supports the following integrations:

  • MockIntegration - can be used to test APIs. This is the default integration if one is not specified.

  • LambdaIntegration - can be used to invoke an AWS Lambda function.

  • AwsIntegration - can be used to invoke arbitrary AWS service APIs.

  • HttpIntegration - can be used to invoke HTTP endpoints.

The following example shows how to integrate the GET /book/{book_id} method to an AWS Lambda function:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
get_book_handler = lambda.Function(...)
get_book_integration = apigateway.LambdaIntegration(get_book_handler)
book.add_method("GET", get_book_integration)

Integration options can be optionally be specified:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
get_book_integration = apigateway.LambdaIntegration(get_book_handler,
    content_handling=apigateway.ContentHandling.CONVERT_TO_TEXT, # convert to base64
    credentials_passthrough=True
)

Method options can optionally be specified when adding methods:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
book.add_method("GET", get_book_integration,
    authorization_type=apigateway.AuthorizationType.IAM,
    api_key_required=True
)

The following example shows how to use an API Key with a usage plan:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
hello = lambda.Function(self, "hello",
    runtime=lambda.Runtime.NODEJS_10_X,
    handler="hello.handler",
    code=lambda.Code.from_asset("lambda")
)

api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "hello-api")
integration = apigateway.LambdaIntegration(hello)

v1 = api.root.add_resource("v1")
echo = v1.add_resource("echo")
echo_method = echo.add_method("GET", integration, api_key_required=True)
key = api.add_api_key("ApiKey")

plan = api.add_usage_plan("UsagePlan",
    name="Easy",
    api_key=key,
    throttle={
        "rate_limit": 10,
        "burst_limit": 2
    }
)

plan.add_api_stage(
    stage=api.deployment_stage,
    throttle=[{
        "method": echo_method,
        "throttle": {
            "rate_limit": 10,
            "burst_limit": 2
        }
    }
    ]
)

The name and value of the API Key can be specified at creation; if not provided, a name and value will be automatically generated by API Gateway.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
key = api.add_api_key("ApiKey",
    api_key_name="myApiKey1",
    value="MyApiKeyThatIsAtLeast20Characters"
)

In scenarios where you need to create a single api key and configure rate limiting for it, you can use RateLimitedApiKey. This construct lets you specify rate limiting properties which should be applied only to the api key being created. The API key created has the specified rate limits, such as quota and throttles, applied.

The following example shows how to use a rate limited api key :

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
hello = lambda.Function(self, "hello",
    runtime=lambda.Runtime.NODEJS_10_X,
    handler="hello.handler",
    code=lambda.Code.from_asset("lambda")
)

api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "hello-api")
integration = apigateway.LambdaIntegration(hello)

v1 = api.root.add_resource("v1")
echo = v1.add_resource("echo")
echo_method = echo.add_method("GET", integration, api_key_required=True)

key = apigateway.RateLimitedApiKey(self, "rate-limited-api-key",
    customer_id="hello-customer",
    resources=[api],
    quota={
        "limit": 10000,
        "period": apigateway.Period.MONTH
    }
)

Working with models

When you work with Lambda integrations that are not Proxy integrations, you have to define your models and mappings for the request, response, and integration.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
hello = lambda.Function(self, "hello",
    runtime=lambda.Runtime.NODEJS_10_X,
    handler="hello.handler",
    code=lambda.Code.from_asset("lambda")
)

api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "hello-api")
resource = api.root.add_resource("v1")

You can define more parameters on the integration to tune the behavior of API Gateway

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
integration = LambdaIntegration(hello,
    proxy=False,
    request_parameters={
        # You can define mapping parameters from your method to your integration
        # - Destination parameters (the key) are the integration parameters (used in mappings)
        # - Source parameters (the value) are the source request parameters or expressions
        # @see: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/apigateway/latest/developerguide/request-response-data-mappings.html
        "integration.request.querystring.who": "method.request.querystring.who"
    },
    allow_test_invoke=True,
    request_templates={
        # You can define a mapping that will build a payload for your integration, based
        #  on the integration parameters that you have specified
        # Check: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/apigateway/latest/developerguide/api-gateway-mapping-template-reference.html
        "application/json": JSON.stringify(action="sayHello", poll_id="$util.escapeJavaScript($input.params('who'))")
    },
    # This parameter defines the behavior of the engine is no suitable response template is found
    passthrough_behavior=PassthroughBehavior.NEVER,
    integration_responses=[{
        # Successful response from the Lambda function, no filter defined
        #  - the selectionPattern filter only tests the error message
        # We will set the response status code to 200
        "status_code": "200",
        "response_templates": {
            # This template takes the "message" result from the Lambda function, and embeds it in a JSON response
            # Check https://docs.aws.amazon.com/apigateway/latest/developerguide/api-gateway-mapping-template-reference.html
            "application/json": JSON.stringify(state="ok", greeting="$util.escapeJavaScript($input.body)")
        },
        "response_parameters": {
            # We can map response parameters
            # - Destination parameters (the key) are the response parameters (used in mappings)
            # - Source parameters (the value) are the integration response parameters or expressions
            "method.response.header._content-_type": "'application/json'",
            "method.response.header._access-_control-_allow-_origin": "'*'",
            "method.response.header._access-_control-_allow-_credentials": "'true'"
        }
    }, {
        # For errors, we check if the error message is not empty, get the error data
        "selection_pattern": "(
|.)+",
        # We will set the response status code to 200
        "status_code": "400",
        "response_templates": {
            "application/json": JSON.stringify(state="error", message="$util.escapeJavaScript($input.path('$.errorMessage'))")
        },
        "response_parameters": {
            "method.response.header._content-_type": "'application/json'",
            "method.response.header._access-_control-_allow-_origin": "'*'",
            "method.response.header._access-_control-_allow-_credentials": "'true'"
        }
    }
    ]
)

You can define models for your responses (and requests)

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
# We define the JSON Schema for the transformed valid response
response_model = api.add_model("ResponseModel",
    content_type="application/json",
    model_name="ResponseModel",
    schema={
        "schema": JsonSchemaVersion.DRAFT4,
        "title": "pollResponse",
        "type": JsonSchemaType.OBJECT,
        "properties": {
            "state": {"type": JsonSchemaType.STRING},
            "greeting": {"type": JsonSchemaType.STRING}
        }
    }
)

# We define the JSON Schema for the transformed error response
error_response_model = api.add_model("ErrorResponseModel",
    content_type="application/json",
    model_name="ErrorResponseModel",
    schema={
        "schema": JsonSchemaVersion.DRAFT4,
        "title": "errorResponse",
        "type": JsonSchemaType.OBJECT,
        "properties": {
            "state": {"type": JsonSchemaType.STRING},
            "message": {"type": JsonSchemaType.STRING}
        }
    }
)

And reference all on your method definition.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
resource.add_method("GET", integration,
    # We can mark the parameters as required
    request_parameters={
        "method.request.querystring.who": True
    },
    # we can set request validator options like below
    request_validator_options={
        "request_validator_name": "test-validator",
        "validate_request_body": True,
        "validate_request_parameters": False
    },
    method_responses=[{
        # Successful response from the integration
        "status_code": "200",
        # Define what parameters are allowed or not
        "response_parameters": {
            "method.response.header._content-_type": True,
            "method.response.header._access-_control-_allow-_origin": True,
            "method.response.header._access-_control-_allow-_credentials": True
        },
        # Validate the schema on the response
        "response_models": {
            "application/json": response_model
        }
    }, {
        # Same thing for the error responses
        "status_code": "400",
        "response_parameters": {
            "method.response.header._content-_type": True,
            "method.response.header._access-_control-_allow-_origin": True,
            "method.response.header._access-_control-_allow-_credentials": True
        },
        "response_models": {
            "application/json": error_response_model
        }
    }
    ]
)

Specifying requestValidatorOptions automatically creates the RequestValidator construct with the given options. However, if you have your RequestValidator already initialized or imported, use the requestValidator option instead.

Default Integration and Method Options

The defaultIntegration and defaultMethodOptions properties can be used to configure a default integration at any resource level. These options will be used when defining method under this resource (recursively) with undefined integration or options.

If not defined, the default integration is MockIntegration. See reference documentation for default method options.

The following example defines the booksBackend integration as a default integration. This means that all API methods that do not explicitly define an integration will be routed to this AWS Lambda function.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
books_backend = apigateway.LambdaIntegration(...)
api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "books",
    default_integration=books_backend
)

books = api.root.add_resource("books")
books.add_method("GET")# integrated with `booksBackend`
books.add_method("POST")# integrated with `booksBackend`

book = books.add_resource("{book_id}")
book.add_method("GET")

A Method can be configured with authorization scopes. Authorization scopes are used in conjunction with an authorizer that uses Amazon Cognito user pools. Read more about authorization scopes here.

Authorization scopes for a Method can be configured using the authorizationScopes property as shown below -

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
books.add_method("GET", apigateway.HttpIntegration("http://amazon.com"),
    authorization_type=AuthorizationType.COGNITO,
    authorization_scopes=["Scope1", "Scope2"]
)

Proxy Routes

The addProxy method can be used to install a greedy {proxy+} resource on a path. By default, this also installs an "ANY" method:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
proxy = resource.add_proxy(
    default_integration=LambdaIntegration(handler),

    # "false" will require explicitly adding methods on the `proxy` resource
    any_method=True
)

Authorizers

API Gateway supports several different authorization types that can be used for controlling access to your REST APIs.

IAM-based authorizer

The following CDK code provides ‘execute-api’ permission to an IAM user, via IAM policies, for the ‘GET’ method on the books resource:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
get_books = books.add_method("GET", apigateway.HttpIntegration("http://amazon.com"),
    authorization_type=apigateway.AuthorizationType.IAM
)

iam_user.attach_inline_policy(iam.Policy(self, "AllowBooks",
    statements=[
        iam.PolicyStatement(
            actions=["execute-api:Invoke"],
            effect=iam.Effect.Allow,
            resources=[get_books.method_arn()]
        )
    ]
))

Lambda-based token authorizer

API Gateway also allows lambda functions to be used as authorizers.

This module provides support for token-based Lambda authorizers. When a client makes a request to an API’s methods configured with such an authorizer, API Gateway calls the Lambda authorizer, which takes the caller’s identity as input and returns an IAM policy as output. A token-based Lambda authorizer (also called a token authorizer) receives the caller’s identity in a bearer token, such as a JSON Web Token (JWT) or an OAuth token.

API Gateway interacts with the authorizer Lambda function handler by passing input and expecting the output in a specific format. The event object that the handler is called with contains the authorizationToken and the methodArn from the request to the API Gateway endpoint. The handler is expected to return the principalId (i.e. the client identifier) and a policyDocument stating what the client is authorizer to perform. See here for a detailed specification on inputs and outputs of the Lambda handler.

The following code attaches a token-based Lambda authorizer to the ‘GET’ Method of the Book resource:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
auth_fn = lambda.Function(self, "booksAuthorizerLambda")

auth = apigateway.TokenAuthorizer(self, "booksAuthorizer",
    handler=auth_fn
)

books.add_method("GET", apigateway.HttpIntegration("http://amazon.com"),
    authorizer=auth
)

You can find a full working example here.

By default, the TokenAuthorizer looks for the authorization token in the request header with the key ‘Authorization’. This can, however, be modified by changing the identitySource property.

Authorizers can also be passed via the defaultMethodOptions property within the RestApi construct or the Method construct. Unless explicitly overridden, the specified defaults will be applied across all Methods across the RestApi or across all Resources, depending on where the defaults were specified.

Lambda-based request authorizer

This module provides support for request-based Lambda authorizers. When a client makes a request to an API’s methods configured with such an authorizer, API Gateway calls the Lambda authorizer, which takes specified parts of the request, known as identity sources, as input and returns an IAM policy as output. A request-based Lambda authorizer (also called a request authorizer) receives the identity sources in a series of values pulled from the request, from the headers, stage variables, query strings, and the context.

API Gateway interacts with the authorizer Lambda function handler by passing input and expecting the output in a specific format. The event object that the handler is called with contains the body of the request and the methodArn from the request to the API Gateway endpoint. The handler is expected to return the principalId (i.e. the client identifier) and a policyDocument stating what the client is authorizer to perform. See here for a detailed specification on inputs and outputs of the Lambda handler.

The following code attaches a request-based Lambda authorizer to the ‘GET’ Method of the Book resource:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
auth_fn = lambda.Function(self, "booksAuthorizerLambda")

auth = apigateway.RequestAuthorizer(self, "booksAuthorizer",
    handler=auth_fn,
    identity_sources=[IdentitySource.header("Authorization")]
)

books.add_method("GET", apigateway.HttpIntegration("http://amazon.com"),
    authorizer=auth
)

You can find a full working example here.

By default, the RequestAuthorizer does not pass any kind of information from the request. This can, however, be modified by changing the identitySource property, and is required when specifying a value for caching.

Authorizers can also be passed via the defaultMethodOptions property within the RestApi construct or the Method construct. Unless explicitly overridden, the specified defaults will be applied across all Methods across the RestApi or across all Resources, depending on where the defaults were specified.

Deployments

By default, the RestApi construct will automatically create an API Gateway Deployment and a “prod” Stage which represent the API configuration you defined in your CDK app. This means that when you deploy your app, your API will be have open access from the internet via the stage URL.

The URL of your API can be obtained from the attribute restApi.url, and is also exported as an Output from your stack, so it’s printed when you cdk deploy your app:

$ cdk deploy
...
books.booksapiEndpointE230E8D5 = https://6lyktd4lpk.execute-api.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/prod/

To disable this behavior, you can set { deploy: false } when creating your API. This means that the API will not be deployed and a stage will not be created for it. You will need to manually define a apigateway.Deployment and apigateway.Stage resources.

Use the deployOptions property to customize the deployment options of your API.

The following example will configure API Gateway to emit logs and data traces to AWS CloudWatch for all API calls:

By default, an IAM role will be created and associated with API Gateway to allow it to write logs and metrics to AWS CloudWatch unless cloudWatchRole is set to false.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "books",
    deploy_options={
        "logging_level": apigateway.MethodLoggingLevel.INFO,
        "data_trace_enabled": True
    }
)

Deep dive: Invalidation of deployments

API Gateway deployments are an immutable snapshot of the API. This means that we want to automatically create a new deployment resource every time the API model defined in our CDK app changes.

In order to achieve that, the AWS CloudFormation logical ID of the AWS::ApiGateway::Deployment resource is dynamically calculated by hashing the API configuration (resources, methods). This means that when the configuration changes (i.e. a resource or method are added, configuration is changed), a new logical ID will be assigned to the deployment resource. This will cause CloudFormation to create a new deployment resource.

By default, old deployments are deleted. You can set retainDeployments: true to allow users revert the stage to an old deployment manually.

Custom Domains

To associate an API with a custom domain, use the domainName configuration when you define your API:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
api = apigw.RestApi(self, "MyDomain",
    domain_name={
        "domain_name": "example.com",
        "certificate": acm_certificate_for_example_com
    }
)

This will define a DomainName resource for you, along with a BasePathMapping from the root of the domain to the deployment stage of the API. This is a common set up.

To route domain traffic to an API Gateway API, use Amazon Route 53 to create an alias record. An alias record is a Route 53 extension to DNS. It’s similar to a CNAME record, but you can create an alias record both for the root domain, such as example.com, and for subdomains, such as www.example.com. (You can create CNAME records only for subdomains.)

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
import aws_cdk.aws_route53 as route53
import aws_cdk.aws_route53_targets as targets

route53.ARecord(self, "CustomDomainAliasRecord",
    zone=hosted_zone_for_example_com,
    target=route53.RecordTarget.from_alias(targets.ApiGateway(api))
)

You can also define a DomainName resource directly in order to customize the default behavior:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
apigw.DomainName(self, "custom-domain",
    domain_name="example.com",
    certificate=acm_certificate_for_example_com,
    endpoint_type=apigw.EndpointType.EDGE, # default is REGIONAL
    security_policy=apigw.SecurityPolicy.TLS_1_2
)

Once you have a domain, you can map base paths of the domain to APIs. The following example will map the URL https://example.com/go-to-api1 to the api1 API and https://example.com/boom to the api2 API.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
domain.add_base_path_mapping(api1, base_path="go-to-api1")
domain.add_base_path_mapping(api2, base_path="boom")

You can specify the API Stage to which this base path URL will map to. By default, this will be the deploymentStage of the RestApi.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
beta_deploy = Deployment(self, "beta-deployment",
    api=restapi
)
beta_stage = Stage(self, "beta-stage",
    deployment=beta_deploy
)
domain.add_base_path_mapping(restapi, base_path="api/beta", stage=beta_stage)

If you don’t specify basePath, all URLs under this domain will be mapped to the API, and you won’t be able to map another API to the same domain:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
domain.add_base_path_mapping(api)

This can also be achieved through the mapping configuration when defining the domain as demonstrated above.

If you wish to setup this domain with an Amazon Route53 alias, use the targets.ApiGatewayDomain:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
import aws_cdk.aws_route53 as route53
import aws_cdk.aws_route53_targets as targets

route53.ARecord(self, "CustomDomainAliasRecord",
    zone=hosted_zone_for_example_com,
    target=route53.RecordTarget.from_alias(targets.ApiGatewayDomain(domain_name))
)

Access Logging

Access logging creates logs everytime an API method is accessed. Access logs can have information on who has accessed the API, how the caller accessed the API and what responses were generated. Access logs are configured on a Stage of the RestApi. Access logs can be expressed in a format of your choosing, and can contain any access details, with a minimum that it must include the ‘requestId’. The list of variables that can be expressed in the access log can be found here. Read more at Setting Up CloudWatch API Logging in API Gateway

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
# production stage
prd_log_group = cwlogs.LogGroup(self, "PrdLogs")
api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "books",
    deploy_options={
        "access_log_destination": apigateway.LogGroupLogDestination(prd_log_group),
        "access_log_format": apigateway.AccessLogFormat.json_with_standard_fields()
    }
)
deployment = apigateway.Deployment(stack, "Deployment", api=api)

# development stage
dev_log_group = cwlogs.LogGroup(self, "DevLogs")
apigateway.Stage(self, "dev",
    deployment=deployment,
    access_log_destination=apigateway.LogGroupLogDestination(dev_log_group),
    access_log_format=apigateway.AccessLogFormat.json_with_standard_fields(
        caller=False,
        http_method=True,
        ip=True,
        protocol=True,
        request_time=True,
        resource_path=True,
        response_length=True,
        status=True,
        user=True
    )
)

The following code will generate the access log in the CLF format.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
log_group = cwlogs.LogGroup(self, "ApiGatewayAccessLogs")
api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "books",
    deploy_options={
        "access_log_destination": apigateway.LogGroupLogDestination(log_group),
        "access_log_format": apigateway.AccessLogFormat.clf()
    }
)

You can also configure your own access log format by using the AccessLogFormat.custom() API. AccessLogField provides commonly used fields. The following code configures access log to contain.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
log_group = cwlogs.LogGroup(self, "ApiGatewayAccessLogs")
apigateway.RestApi(self, "books",
    deploy_options={
        "access_log_destination": apigateway.LogGroupLogDestination(log_group),
        "access_log_format": apigateway.AccessLogFormat.custom(f"{AccessLogFormat.contextRequestId()} {AccessLogField.contextErrorMessage()} {AccessLogField.contextErrorMessageString()}")
    }
)

You can use the methodOptions property to configure default method throttling for a stage. The following snippet configures the a stage that accepts 100 requests per minute, allowing burst up to 200 requests per minute.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "books")
deployment = apigateway.Deployment(self, "my-deployment", api=api)
stage = apigateway.Stage(self, "my-stage",
    deployment=deployment,
    method_options={
        "/*/*": {# This special path applies to all resource paths and all HTTP methods
            "throttling_rate_limit": 100,
            "throttling_burst_limit": 200}
    }
)

Configuring methodOptions on the deployOptions of RestApi will set the throttling behaviors on the default stage that is automatically created.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "books",
    deploy_options={
        "method_options": {
            "/*/*": {# This special path applies to all resource paths and all HTTP methods
                "throttling_rate_limit": 100,
                "throttling_burst_limit": 1000}
        }
    }
)

Cross Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) is a mechanism that uses additional HTTP headers to tell browsers to give a web application running at one origin, access to selected resources from a different origin. A web application executes a cross-origin HTTP request when it requests a resource that has a different origin (domain, protocol, or port) from its own.

You can add the CORS preflight OPTIONS HTTP method to any API resource via the defaultCorsPreflightOptions option or by calling the addCorsPreflight on a specific resource.

The following example will enable CORS for all methods and all origins on all resources of the API:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
apigateway.RestApi(self, "api",
    default_cors_preflight_options={
        "allow_origins": apigateway.Cors.ALL_ORIGINS,
        "allow_methods": apigateway.Cors.ALL_METHODS
    }
)

The following example will add an OPTIONS method to the myResource API resource, which only allows GET and PUT HTTP requests from the origin https://amazon.com.

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
my_resource.add_cors_preflight(
    allow_origins=["https://amazon.com"],
    allow_methods=["GET", "PUT"]
)

See the ``CorsOptions` <https://docs.aws.amazon.com/cdk/api/latest/docs/@aws-cdk_aws-apigateway.CorsOptions.html>`_ API reference for a detailed list of supported configuration options.

You can specify defaults this at the resource level, in which case they will be applied to the entire resource sub-tree:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
subtree = resource.add_resource("subtree",
    default_cors_preflight_options={
        "allow_origins": ["https://amazon.com"]
    }
)

This means that all resources under subtree (inclusive) will have a preflight OPTIONS added to them.

See #906 for a list of CORS features which are not yet supported.

Endpoint Configuration

API gateway allows you to specify an API Endpoint Type. To define an endpoint type for the API gateway, use endpointConfiguration property:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
api = apigw.RestApi(stack, "api",
    endpoint_configuration={
        "types": [apigw.EndpointType.EDGE]
    }
)

You can also create an association between your Rest API and a VPC endpoint. By doing so, API Gateway will generate a new Route53 Alias DNS record which you can use to invoke your private APIs. More info can be found here.

Here is an example:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
some_endpoint = # Get or Create endpoint here
api = apigw.RestApi(stack, "api",
    endpoint_configuration={
        "types": [apigw.EndpointType.PRIVATE],
        "vpc_endpoints": [some_endpoint]
    }
)

By performing this association, we can invoke the API gateway using the following format:

https://{rest-api-id}-{vpce-id}.execute-api.{region}.amazonaws.com/{stage}

Private Integrations

A private integration makes it simple to expose HTTP/HTTPS resources behind an Amazon VPC for access by clients outside of the VPC. The private integration uses an API Gateway resource of VpcLink to encapsulate connections between API Gateway and targeted VPC resources. The VpcLink is then attached to the Integration of a specific API Gateway Method. The following code sets up a private integration with a network load balancer -

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
vpc = ec2.Vpc(stack, "VPC")
nlb = elbv2.NetworkLoadBalancer(stack, "NLB",
    vpc=vpc
)
link = apigw.VpcLink(stack, "link",
    targets=[nlb]
)

integration = apigw.Integration(
    type=apigw.IntegrationType.HTTP_PROXY,
    options={
        "connection_type": apigw.ConnectionType.VPC_LINK,
        "vpc_link": link
    }
)

Any existing VpcLink resource can be imported into the CDK app via the VpcLink.fromVpcLinkId().

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
stack = Stack(app, "my-stack")

awesome_link = VpcLink.from_vpc_link_id(stack, "awesome-vpc-link", "us-east-1_oiuR12Abd")

Gateway response

If the Rest API fails to process an incoming request, it returns to the client an error response without forwarding the request to the integration backend. API Gateway has a set of standard response messages that are sent to the client for each type of error. These error responses can be configured on the Rest API. The list of Gateway responses that can be configured can be found here. Learn more about Gateway Responses.

The following code configures a Gateway Response when the response is ‘access denied’:

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
api = apigateway.RestApi(self, "books-api")
api.add_gateway_response("test-response",
    type=ResponseType.ACCESS_DENIED,
    status_code="500",
    response_headers={
        "Access-Control-Allow-Origin": "test.com",
        "test-key": "test-value"
    },
    templates={
        "application/json": "{ "message": $context.error.messageString, "statusCode": "488", "type": "$context.error.responseType" }"
    }
)

OpenAPI Definition

CDK supports creating a REST API by importing an OpenAPI definition file. It currently supports OpenAPI v2.0 and OpenAPI v3.0 definition files. Read more about Configuring a REST API using OpenAPI.

The following code creates a REST API using an external OpenAPI definition JSON file -

# Example automatically generated without compilation. See https://github.com/aws/jsii/issues/826
api = apigateway.SpecRestApi(self, "books-api",
    api_definition=apigateway.ApiDefinition.from_asset("path-to-file.json")
)

books_resource = api.root.add_resource("books")
books_resource.add_method("GET", ...)

It is possible to use the addResource() API to define additional API Gateway Resources.

Note: Deployment will fail if a Resource of the same name is already defined in the Open API specification.

Note: Any default properties configured, such as defaultIntegration, defaultMethodOptions, etc. will only be applied to Resources and Methods defined in the CDK, and not the ones defined in the spec. Use the API Gateway extensions to OpenAPI to configure these.

There are a number of limitations in using OpenAPI definitions in API Gateway. Read the Amazon API Gateway important notes for REST APIs for more details.

Note: When starting off with an OpenAPI definition using SpecRestApi, it is not possible to configure some properties that can be configured directly in the OpenAPI specification file. This is to prevent people duplication of these properties and potential confusion.

APIGateway v2

APIGateway v2 APIs are now moved to its own package named aws-apigatewayv2. For backwards compatibility, existing APIGateway v2 “CFN resources” (such as CfnApi) that were previously exported as part of this package, are still exported from here and have been marked deprecated. However, updates to these CloudFormation resources, such as new properties and new resource types will not be available.

Move to using aws-apigatewayv2 to get the latest APIs and updates.


This module is part of the AWS Cloud Development Kit project.