AWS DeepRacer
Developer Guide

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Overview of Reinforcement Learning

In reinforcement learning, an agent with an objective interacts with an environment to maximize the agent's total reward. The agent takes an action, guided by a strategy referred to as a policy, at a given environment state and reaches a new state. There is an immediate reward associated with any action. The reward is a measure of the desirability of the action. This immediate reward is considered to be returned by the environment.

The goal of the reinforcement learning in AWS DeepRacer is to learn the optimal policy in a given environment. Learning is an iterative process of trials and errors. The agent takes the random initial action to arrive at a new state. Then the agent iterates the step from the new state to the next one. Over time, the agent discovers actions that lead to the maximum long-term rewards. The interaction of the agent from an initial state to a terminal state is called an episode.

The following sketch illustrates this learning process:


                Image: An overview of reinforcement learning.

The agent embodies a neural network that represents a function to approximate the agent's policy. The image from the vehicle's front camera is the environment state and the agent action is defined by the agent's speed and steering angles.

The agent receives positive rewards if it stays on-track to finish the race and negative rewards for going off-track. An episode starts with the agent somewhere on the race track and finishes when the agent either goes off-track or completes a lap.

Note

Strictly speaking, the environment state refers to everything relevant to the problem. For example, the vehicle's position on the track as well as the shape of the track. The image fed through the camera mounted the vehicle's front does not capture the entire environment state. Hence, the environment is deemed partially observed and the input to the agent is referred to as observation rather than state. For simplicity, we use state and observation interchangeably throughout this documentation.

Training the agent in a simulated environment has the following advantages:

  • The simulation can estimate how much progress the agent has made and identify when it goes off the track to compute a reward.

  • The simulation relieves the trainer from tedious chores to reset the vehicle each time it goes off the track, as is done in a physical environment.

  • The simulation can speed up training.

  • The simulation provides better controls of the environment conditions, e.g. selecting different tracks, backgrounds, and vehicle conditions.

The alternative to reinforcement learning is supervised learning, also referred to as imitation learning. Here a known dataset (of [image, action] tuples) collected from a given environment is used to train the agent. Models that are trained through imitation learning can be applied to autonomous driving. They work well only when the images from the camera look similar to the images in the training dataset. For robust driving, the training dataset must be comprehensive. In contrast, reinforcement learning does not require such extensive labeling efforts and can be trained entirely in simulation. Because reinforcement learning starts with random actions, the agent learns a variety of environment and track conditions. This makes the trained model robust .