Amazon EventBridge Pipes input transformation - Amazon EventBridge

Amazon EventBridge Pipes input transformation

Amazon EventBridge Pipes support optional input transformers when passing data to the enrichment and the target. You can use Input transformers to reshape the JSON event input payload to serve the needs of the enrichment or target service. For Amazon API Gateway and API destinations, this is how you shape the input event to the RESTful model of your API. Input transformers are modeled as an InputTemplate parameter. They can be free text, a JSON path to the event payload, or a JSON object that includes inline JSON paths to the event payload. For enrichment, the event payload is coming from the source. For targets, the event payload is what is returned from the enrichment, if one is configured on the pipe. In addition to the service-specific data in the event payload, you can use reserved variables in your InputTemplate to reference data for your pipe.

To access items in an array, use square bracket notation.


EventBridge does not support all JSON Path syntax and evaluate it at runtime. Supported syntax includes:

  • dot notation (for example,$.detail)

  • dashes

  • underscores

  • alphanumeric characters

  • array indices

  • wildcards (*)

The following are sample InputTemplate parameters referencing an Amazon SQS event payload:

Static string

InputTemplate: "Hello, sender"


InputTemplate: <$.attributes.SenderId>

Dynamic string

InputTemplate: "Hello, <$.attributes.SenderId>"

Static JSON

InputTemplate: > { "key1": "value1", "key2": "value2", "key3": "value3", }

Dynamic JSON

InputTemplate: > { "key1": "value1" "key2": <$.body.key>, "d": <aws.pipes.event.ingestion-time> }

Using square bracket notation to access an item in an array:

InputTemplate: > { "key1": "value1" "key2": <$.body.Records[3]>, "d": <aws.pipes.event.ingestion-time> }

EventBridge replaces input transformers at runtime to ensure a valid JSON output. Because of this, put quotes around variables that refer to JSON path parameters, but do not put quotes around variables that refer to JSON objects or arrays.

Reserved variables

Input templates can use the following reserved variables:

  • <aws.pipes.pipe-arn> – The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the pipe.

  • <aws.pipes.pipe-name> – The name of the pipe.

  • <aws.pipes.source-arn> – The ARN of the event source of the pipe.

  • <aws.pipes.enrichment-arn> – The ARN of the enrichment of the pipe.

  • <> – The ARN of the target of the pipe.

  • <aws.pipes.event.ingestion-time> – The time at which the event was received by the input transformer. This is an ISO 8601 timestamp. This time is different for the enrichment input transformer and the target input transformer, depending on when the enrichment completed processing the event.

  • <aws.pipes.event> – The event as received by the input transformer.

    For an enrichment input transformer, this is the event from the source. This contains the original payload from the source, plus additional service-specific metadata. See the topics in Amazon EventBridge Pipes sources for service-specific examples.

    For a target input transformer, this is the event returned by the enrichment, if one is configured, with no additional metadata. As such, an enrichment-returned payload may be non-JSON. If no enrichment is configured on the pipe, this is the event from the source with metadata.

  • <aws.pipes.event.json> – The same as aws.pipes.event, but the variable only has a value if the original payload, either from the source or returned by the enrichment, is JSON. If the pipe has an encoded field, such as the Amazon SQS body field or the Kinesis data, those fields are decoded and turned into valid JSON. Because it isn't escaped, the variable can only be used as a value for a JSON field. For more information, see Implicit body data parsing.

Input transform example

The following is an example Amazon EC2 event that we can use as our sample event.

{ "version": "0", "id": "7bf73129-1428-4cd3-a780-95db273d1602", "detail-type": "EC2 Instance State-change Notification", "source": "aws.ec2", "account": "123456789012", "time": "2015-11-11T21:29:54Z", "region": "us-east-1", "resources": [ "arn:aws:ec2:us-east-1:123456789012:instance/i-abcd1111" ], "detail": { "instance-id": "i-0123456789", "state": "RUNNING" } }

Let's use the following JSON as our Transformer.

{ "instance" : <$.detail.instance-id>, "state": <$.detail.state>, "pipeArn" : <aws.pipes.pipe-arn>, "pipeName" : <aws.pipes.pipe-name>, "originalEvent" : <aws.pipes.event.json> }

The following will be the resulting Output:

{ "instance" : "i-0123456789", "state": "RUNNING", "pipeArn" : "arn:aws:pipe:us-east-1:123456789012:pipe/example", "pipeName" : "example", "originalEvent" : { ... // commented for brevity } }

Implicit body data parsing

The following fields in the incoming payload may be JSON-escaped, such as the Amazon SQS body object, or base64-encoded, such as the Kinesis data object. For both filtering and input transformation, EventBridge transforms these fields into valid JSON so sub-values can be referenced directly. For example, <$.data.someKey> for Kinesis.

To have the target receive the original payload without any additional metadata, use an input transformer with this body data, specific to the source. For example, <$.body> for Amazon SQS, or <$.data> for Kinesis. If the original payload is a valid JSON string (for example {"key": "value"}), then use of the input transformer with source specific body data will result in the quotes within the original source payload being removed. For example, {"key": "value"} will become "{key: value}" when delivered to the target. If your target requires valid JSON payloads (for example, EventBridge Lambda or Step Functions), this will cause delivery failure. To have the target receive the original source data without generating invalid JSON, wrap the source body data input transformer in JSON. For example, {"data": <$.data>}.

Implicit body parsing can also be used to dynamically populate values for most pipe target or enrichment parameters. For more information, see Dynamic path parameters


If the original payload is valid JSON, this field will contain the unescaped, non-base64-encoded JSON. However, if the payload is not valid JSON, EventBridge base64-encodes for the fields listed below, with the exception of Amazon SQS.

  • Active MQdata

  • Kinesisdata

  • Amazon MSKkey and value

  • Rabbit MQdata

  • Self managed Apache Kafka;key and value

  • Amazon SQSbody

Common issues with transforming input

These are some common issues when transforming input in EventBridge pipes:

  • For Strings, quotes are required.

  • There is no validation when creating JSON path for your template.

  • If you specify a variable to match a JSON path that doesn't exist in the event, that variable isn't created and won't appear in the output.

  • JSON properties like aws.pipes.event.json can only be used as the value of a JSON field, not inline in other strings.

  • EventBridge doesn't escape values extracted by Input Path, when populating the Input Template for a target.

  • If a JSON path references a JSON object or array, but the variable is referenced in a string, EventBridge removes any internal quotes to ensure a valid string. For example, "Body is <$.body>" would result in EventBridge removing quotes from the object.

    Therefore, if you want to output a JSON object based on a single JSON path variable, you must place it as a key. In this example, {"body": <$.body>}.

  • Quotes are not required for variables that represent strings. They are permitted, but EventBridge Pipes automatically adds quotes to string variable values during transformation, to ensure the transformation output is valid JSON. EventBridge Pipes does not add quotes to variables that represent JSON objects or arrays. Do not add quotes for variables that represent JSON objects or arrays.

    For example, the following input template includes variables that represent both strings and JSON objects:

    { "pipeArn" : <aws.pipes.pipe-arn>, "pipeName" : <aws.pipes.pipe-name>, "originalEvent" : <aws.pipes.event.json> }

    Resulting in valid JSON with proper quotation:

    { "pipeArn" : "arn:aws:events:us-east-2:123456789012:pipe/example", "pipeName" : "example", "originalEvent" : { ... // commented for brevity } }
  • For Lambda or Step Functions enrichments or targets, batches are delivered to the target as JSON arrays, even if the batch size is 1. However, input transformers will still be applied to individual records in the JSON Array, not the array as a whole. For more information, see Amazon EventBridge Pipes batching and concurrency.