CREATE MODEL - Amazon Redshift



Before you use the CREATE MODEL statement, complete the prerequisites in Cluster setup for using Amazon Redshift ML. The following is a high-level summary of the prerequisites.

  • Create an Amazon Redshift cluster with the AWS Management Console or the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI).

  • Attach the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policy while creating the cluster.

  • To allow Amazon Redshift and SageMaker to assume the role to interact with other services, add the appropriate trust policy to the IAM role.

For details for the IAM role, trust policy, and other prerequisites, see Cluster setup for using Amazon Redshift ML.

Following, you can find different use cases for the CREATE MODEL statement.

Required privileges

Following are required privileges for CREATE MODEL:

  • Superuser

  • Users with the CREATE MODEL privilege

  • Roles with the GRANT CREATE MODEL privilege

Cost control

Amazon Redshift ML uses existing cluster resources to create prediction models, so you don’t have to pay additional costs. However, you might have additional costs if you need to resize your cluster or want to train your models. Amazon Redshift ML uses Amazon SageMaker to train models, which does have an additional associated cost. There are ways to control additional costs, such as limiting the maximum amount of time training can take or by limiting the number of training examples used to train your model. For more information, see Costs for using Amazon Redshift ML.


The following summarizes the basic options of the full CREATE MODEL syntax.

Full CREATE MODEL syntax

The following is the full syntax of the CREATE MODEL statement.


When creating a model using the CREATE MODEL statement, follow the order of the keywords in the syntax following.

CREATE MODEL model_name FROM { table_name | ( select_statement ) | 'job_name' } [ TARGET column_name ] FUNCTION function_name ( data_type [, ...] ) [ RETURNS super ] IAM_ROLE { default | 'arn:aws:iam::<account-id>:role/<role-name>' } [ AUTO ON / OFF ] -- default is AUTO ON [ MODEL_TYPE { XGBOOST | MLP | LINEAR_LEARNER | KMEANS | FORECAST } ] -- not required for non AUTO OFF case, default is the list of all supported types -- required for AUTO OFF [ PROBLEM_TYPE ( REGRESSION | BINARY_CLASSIFICATION | MULTICLASS_CLASSIFICATION ) ] -- not supported when AUTO OFF [ OBJECTIVE ( 'MSE' | 'Accuracy' | 'F1' | 'F1_Macro' | 'AUC' | 'reg:squarederror' | 'reg:squaredlogerror'| 'reg:logistic'| 'reg:pseudohubererror' | 'reg:tweedie' | 'binary:logistic' | 'binary:hinge', 'multi:softmax' | 'RMSE' | 'WAPE' | 'MAPE' | 'MASE' | 'AverageWeightedQuantileLoss' ) ] -- for AUTO ON: first 5 are valid -- for AUTO OFF: 6-13 are valid -- for FORECAST: 14-18 are valid [ PREPROCESSORS 'string' ] -- required for AUTO OFF, when it has to be 'none' -- optional for AUTO ON [ HYPERPARAMETERS { DEFAULT | DEFAULT EXCEPT ( Key 'value' (,...) ) } ] -- support XGBoost hyperparameters, except OBJECTIVE -- required and only allowed for AUTO OFF -- default NUM_ROUND is 100 -- NUM_CLASS is required if objective is multi:softmax (only possible for AUTO OFF) [ SETTINGS ( S3_BUCKET 'bucket', | -- required TAGS 'string', | -- optional KMS_KEY_ID 'kms_string', | -- optional S3_GARBAGE_COLLECT on / off, | -- optional, defualt is on. MAX_CELLS integer, | -- optional, default is 1,000,000 MAX_RUNTIME integer (, ...) | -- optional, default is 5400 (1.5 hours) HORIZON integer, | -- required if creating a forecast model FREQUENCY integer, | -- required if creating a forecast model PERCENTILES string -- optional if creating a forecast model ) ]



The name of the model. The model name in a schema must be unique.

FROM { table_name | ( select_query ) | 'job_name'}

The table_name or the query that specifies the training data. They can either be an existing table in the system, or an Amazon Redshift-compatible SELECT query enclosed with parentheses, that is (). There must be at least two columns in the query result.

TARGET column_name

The name of the column that becomes the prediction target. The column must exist in the FROM clause.

FUNCTION function_name ( data_type [, ...] )

The name of the function to be created and the data types of the input arguments. You can provide the schema name of a schema in your database instead of a function name.


The type of data to be returned from the model. The returned SUPER data type is applicable only to remote BYOM models.

IAM_ROLE { default | 'arn:aws:iam::<account-id>:role/<role-name>' }

Use the default keyword to have Amazon Redshift use the IAM role that is set as default and associated with the cluster when the CREAT MODEL command runs. Alternatively, you can specify an ARN of an IAM role to use that role.


Turns on or off CREATE MODEL automatic discovery of preprocessor, algorithm, and hyper-parameters selection. Specifying on when creating a Forecast model indicates to use an AutoPredictor, where Amazon Forecast applies the optimal combinations of algorithms to each time series in your dataset.


(Optional) Specifies the model type. You can specify if you want to train a model of a specific model type, such as XGBoost, multilayer perceptron (MLP), KMEANS, or Linear Learner, which are all algorithms that Amazon SageMaker Autopilot supports. If you don't specify the parameter, then all supported model types are searched during training for the best model. You can also create a forecast model in Redshift ML to create accurate time-series forecasts.


(Optional) Specifies the problem type. If you know the problem type, you can restrict Amazon Redshift to only search of the best model of that specific model type. If you don't specify this parameter, a problem type is discovered during the training, based on your data.

OBJECTIVE ( 'MSE' | 'Accuracy' | 'F1' | 'F1Macro' | 'AUC' | 'reg:squarederror' | 'reg:squaredlogerror' | 'reg:logistic' | 'reg:pseudohubererror' | 'reg:tweedie' | 'binary:logistic' | 'binary:hinge' | 'multi:softmax' | 'RMSE' | 'WAPE' | 'MAPE' | 'MASE' | 'AverageWeightedQuantileLoss' )

(Optional) Specifies the name of the objective metric used to measure the predictive quality of a machine learning system. This metric is optimized during training to provide the best estimate for model parameter values from data. If you don't specify a metric explicitly, the default behavior is to automatically use MSE: for regression, F1: for binary classification, Accuracy: for multiclass classification. For more information about objectives, see AutoMLJobObjective in the Amazon SageMaker API Reference and Learning task parametersin the XGBOOST documentation. The values RMSE, WAPE, MAPE, MASE, and AverageWeightedQuantileLoss are only applicable to Forecast models. For more information, see the CreateAutoPredictor API operation.


(Optional) Specifies certain combinations of preprocessors to certain sets of columns. The format is a list of columnSets, and the appropriate transforms to be applied to each set of columns. Amazon Redshift applies all the transformers in a specific transformers list to all columns in the corresponding ColumnSet. For example, to apply OneHotEncoder with Imputer to columns t1 and t2, use the sample command following.

CREATE MODEL customer_churn FROM customer_data TARGET 'Churn' FUNCTION predict_churn IAM_ROLE { default | 'arn:aws:iam::<account-id>:role/<role-name>' } PROBLEM_TYPE BINARY_CLASSIFICATION OBJECTIVE 'F1' PREPROCESSORS '[ ... {"ColumnSet": [ "t1", "t2" ], "Transformers": [ "OneHotEncoder", "Imputer" ] }, {"ColumnSet": [ "t3" ], "Transformers": [ "OneHotEncoder" ] }, {"ColumnSet": [ "temp" ], "Transformers": [ "Imputer", "NumericPassthrough" ] } ]' SETTINGS ( S3_BUCKET 'bucket' )

Specifies whether the default XGBoost parameters are used or overridden by user-specified values. The values must be enclosed with single quotes. Following are examples of parameters for XGBoost and their defaults.

Parameter name Parameter value Default value Notes



Required for Multiclass classification.







String Auto N/A


Integer 6 [0 , 10]
min_child_weight Float 1 MinValue: 0, MaxValue: 120
subsample Float 1 MinValue: 0.5, MaxValue: 1
gamma Float 0 MinValue: 0, MaxValue: 5
alpha Float 0 MinValue: 0, MaxValue: 1000
eta Float 0.3 MinValue: 0.1, MaxValue: 0.5
colsample_byleve Float 1 MinValue: 0.1, MaxValue: 1
colsample_bynode Float 1 MinValue: 0.1, MaxValue: 1
colsample_bytree Float 1 MinValue: 0.5, MaxValue: 1
lambda Float 1 MinValue: 0, MaxValue: 1000
max_delta_step Integer 0 [0, 10]
SETTINGS ( S3_BUCKET 'bucket', | TAGS 'string', | KMS_KEY_ID 'kms_string' , | S3_GARBAGE_COLLECT on / off, | MAX_CELLS integer , | MAX_RUNTIME (,...) , | HORIZON integer, | FREQUENCY forecast_frequency, | PERCENTILES array of strings )

S3_BUCKET clause specifies the Amazon S3 location that is used to store intermediate results.

(Optional) The TAGS parameter is a comma-separated list of key-value pairs that you can use to tag resources created in Amazon SageMaker; and Amazon Forecast. Tags help you organize resources and allocate costs. Values in the pair are optional, so you can create tags by using the format key=value or just by creating a key. For more information about tags in Amazon Redshift, see Tagging overview.

(Optional) KMS_KEY_ID specifies if Amazon Redshift uses server-side encryption with an AWS KMS key to protect data at rest. Data in transit is protected with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

(Optional) S3_GARBAGE_COLLECT { ON | OFF } specifies whether Amazon Redshift performs garbage collection on the resulting datasets used to train models and the models. If set to OFF, the resulting datasets used to train models and the models remains in Amazon S3 and can be used for other purposes. If set to ON, Amazon Redshift deletes the artifacts in Amazon S3 after the training completes. The default is ON.

(Optional) MAX_CELLS specifies the number of cells in the training data. This value is the product of the number of records (in the training query or table) times the number of columns. The default is 1,000,000.

(Optional) MAX_RUNTIME specifies the maximum amount of time to train. Training jobs often complete sooner depending on dataset size. This specifies the maximum amount of time the training should take. The default is 5,400 (90 minutes).

HORIZON specifies the maximum number of predictions the forecast model can return. Once the model is trained, you can't change this integer. This parameter is required if training a forecast model.

FREQUENCY specifies how granular in time units you want the forecasts to be. Available options are Y | M | W | D | H | 30min | 15min | 10min | 5min | 1min. This parameter is required if training a forecast model.

(Optional) PERCENTILES is a comma-delimited string that specifies the forecast types used to train a predictor. Forecast types can be quantiles from 0.01 to 0.99, in increments of 0.01 or higher. You can also specify the mean forecast with mean. You can specify a maximum of five forecast types.