Amazon Simple Notification Service
API Reference (API Version 2010-03-31)


Sends a message to an Amazon SNS topic or sends a text message (SMS message) directly to a phone number.

If you send a message to a topic, Amazon SNS delivers the message to each endpoint that is subscribed to the topic. The format of the message depends on the notification protocol for each subscribed endpoint.

When a messageId is returned, the message has been saved and Amazon SNS will attempt to deliver it shortly.

To use the Publish action for sending a message to a mobile endpoint, such as an app on a Kindle device or mobile phone, you must specify the EndpointArn for the TargetArn parameter. The EndpointArn is returned when making a call with the CreatePlatformEndpoint action. The second example below shows a request and response for publishing to a mobile endpoint.

For more information about formatting messages, see Send Custom Platform-Specific Payloads in Messages to Mobile Devices.

Request Parameters

For information about the parameters that are common to all actions, see Common Parameters.


The message you want to send.


The Message parameter is always a string. If you set MessageStructure to json, you must string-encode the Message parameter.

If you are publishing to a topic and you want to send the same message to all transport protocols, include the text of the message as a String value. If you want to send different messages for each transport protocol, set the value of the MessageStructure parameter to json and use a JSON object for the Message parameter. See the Examples section for the format of the JSON object.


  • With the exception of SMS, messages must be UTF-8 encoded strings and at most 256 KB in size (262,144 bytes, not 262,144 characters).

  • For SMS, each message can contain up to 140 characters. This character limit depends on the encoding schema. For example, an SMS message can contain 160 GSM characters, 140 ASCII characters, or 70 UCS-2 characters.

    If you publish a message that exceeds this size limit, Amazon SNS sends the message as multiple messages, each fitting within the size limit. Messages aren't truncated mid-word but are cut off at whole-word boundaries.

    The total size limit for a single SMS Publish action is 1,600 characters.

JSON-specific constraints:

  • Keys in the JSON object that correspond to supported transport protocols must have simple JSON string values.

  • The values will be parsed (unescaped) before they are used in outgoing messages.

  • Outbound notifications are JSON encoded (meaning that the characters will be reescaped for sending).

  • Values have a minimum length of 0 (the empty string, "", is allowed).

  • Values have a maximum length bounded by the overall message size (so, including multiple protocols may limit message sizes).

  • Non-string values will cause the key to be ignored.

  • Keys that do not correspond to supported transport protocols are ignored.

  • Duplicate keys are not allowed.

  • Failure to parse or validate any key or value in the message will cause the Publish call to return an error (no partial delivery).

Type: String

Required: Yes

MessageAttributes.entry.N.Name (key)
MessageAttributes.entry.N.Value (value)

Message attributes for Publish action.

Type: String to MessageAttributeValue object map

Required: No


Set MessageStructure to json if you want to send a different message for each protocol. For example, using one publish action, you can send a short message to your SMS subscribers and a longer message to your email subscribers. If you set MessageStructure to json, the value of the Message parameter must:

  • be a syntactically valid JSON object; and

  • contain at least a top-level JSON key of "default" with a value that is a string.

You can define other top-level keys that define the message you want to send to a specific transport protocol (e.g., "http").

For information about sending different messages for each protocol using the AWS Management Console, go to Create Different Messages for Each Protocol in the Amazon Simple Notification Service Getting Started Guide.

Valid value: json

Type: String

Required: No


The phone number to which you want to deliver an SMS message. Use E.164 format.

If you don't specify a value for the PhoneNumber parameter, you must specify a value for the TargetArn or TopicArn parameters.

Type: String

Required: No


Optional parameter to be used as the "Subject" line when the message is delivered to email endpoints. This field will also be included, if present, in the standard JSON messages delivered to other endpoints.

Constraints: Subjects must be ASCII text that begins with a letter, number, or punctuation mark; must not include line breaks or control characters; and must be less than 100 characters long.

Type: String

Required: No


Either TopicArn or EndpointArn, but not both.

If you don't specify a value for the TargetArn parameter, you must specify a value for the PhoneNumber or TopicArn parameters.

Type: String

Required: No


The topic you want to publish to.

If you don't specify a value for the TopicArn parameter, you must specify a value for the PhoneNumber or TargetArn parameters.

Type: String

Required: No

Response Elements

The following element is returned by the service.


Unique identifier assigned to the published message.

Length Constraint: Maximum 100 characters

Type: String


For information about the errors that are common to all actions, see Common Errors.


Indicates that the user has been denied access to the requested resource.

HTTP Status Code: 403


Exception error indicating endpoint disabled.

HTTP Status Code: 400


Indicates an internal service error.

HTTP Status Code: 500


Indicates that a request parameter does not comply with the associated constraints.

HTTP Status Code: 400


Indicates that the requested resource does not exist.

HTTP Status Code: 404


Indicates that a request parameter does not comply with the associated constraints.

HTTP Status Code: 400


Exception error indicating platform application disabled.

HTTP Status Code: 400



Sample Request

The following example publishes a different messages to each protocol: ?Subject=My%20first%20message &TopicArn=arn%3Aaws%3Asns%3Aus-east-1%3A698519295917%3AMy-Topic &Message=Hello%20world%21 &Action=Publish &SignatureVersion=2 &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256 &Timestamp=2010-03-31T12%3A00%3A00.000Z &AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE &Signature=9GZysQ4Jpnz%2BHklqM7VFTvEcjR2LIUtn6jW47054xxE%3D Use the following JSON object format for the Message parameter to send different messages to each protocol (linebreaks added for readability): { "default" : "some message", "email" : "some email message", "email-json" : "some email-json message", "http" : "some http message", "https" : "some https message", "sqs" : "some sqs message" }

Sample Response

<PublishResponse xmlns=""> <PublishResult> <MessageId>94f20ce6-13c5-43a0-9a9e-ca52d816e90b</MessageId> </PublishResult> <ResponseMetadata> <RequestId>f187a3c1-376f-11df-8963-01868b7c937a</RequestId> </ResponseMetadata> </PublishResponse>


Sample Request

POST HTTP/1.1 ... Action=Publish &Message=%7B%22default%22%3A%22This+is+the+default+Message%22%2C%22APNS_SANDBOX%22%3A%22%7B+%5C%22aps%5C%22+%3A+%7B+%5C%22alert%5C%22+%3A+%5C%22You+have+got+email.%5C%22%2C+%5C%22badge%5C%22+%3A+9%2C%5C%22sound%5C%22+%3A%5C%22default%5C%22%7D%7D%22%7D &TargetArn=arn%3Aaws%3Asns%3Aus-west-2%3A803981987763%3Aendpoint%2FAPNS_SANDBOX%2Fpushapp%2F98e9ced9-f136-3893-9d60-776547eafebb &SignatureMethod=HmacSHA256 &AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE &SignatureVersion=2 &Version=2010-03-31 &Signature=vmqc4XRupKAxsDAdN4j4Ayw5LQljXMps3kss4bkDfCk%3D &Timestamp=2013-07-18T22%3A44%3A09.452Z &MessageStructure=json

Sample Response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK ... <PublishResponse xmlns=""> <PublishResult> <MessageId>567910cd-659e-55d4-8ccb-5aaf14679dc0</MessageId> </PublishResult> <ResponseMetadata> <RequestId>d74b8436-ae13-5ab4-a9ff-ce54dfea72a0</RequestId> </ResponseMetadata> </PublishResponse>

See Also

For more information about using this API in one of the language-specific AWS SDKs, see the following: