使用 AWS CloudTrail 記錄 API 呼叫 - AWS WAF、AWS Firewall Manager 與 AWS Shield Advanced

本文為英文版的機器翻譯版本,如內容有任何歧義或不一致之處,概以英文版為準。

使用 AWS CloudTrail 記錄 API 呼叫

AWS WAF、AWS Shield Advanced,以及AWS Firewall Manager已與整合AWS CloudTrail,提供記錄使用者、角色或AWS服務。CloudTrail 會將這些服務的 API 呼叫子集擷取為事件,包括來自AWS WAF、Shield Advanced 或 Firewall Manager 主控台,並將程式碼呼叫至AWS WAF、防 Shield 進階或 Firewall Manager API。如果您建立追蹤記錄,就可以持續傳送 CloudTrail 事件至 Amazon S3 儲存貯體,包括AWS WAF、防 Shield 進階或 Firewall Manager。即使您未設定權仗,依然可以透過 CloudTrail 主控台中的 Event history (事件歷史記錄) 檢視最新事件。您可以利用 CloudTrail 收集到的資訊,判斷已對這些服務提出的要求、提出要求的 IP 地址、何人出要求、何時提出要求,以及其他詳細資訊。

若要進一步了解 CloudTrail,包括如何設定及啟用,請參閱《AWS CloudTrail 使用者指南》。

CloudTrail 已在您的AWS 帳戶當您建立帳戶時。當支援的事件活動發生在AWS WAF、Shield Advanced 或 Firewall Manager,系統便會將該活動記錄至 CloudTrail 事件,並將其他AWS中的服務事件事件歷史記錄。您可以檢視、搜尋和下載的最新事件。AWS 帳戶。如需詳細資訊,請參閱使用 CloudTrail 事件歷史記錄檢視事件

若要持續記錄中的事件AWS 帳戶,包括AWS WAF、[Shield 進階] 或 [Firewall Manager] 建立追蹤。線索能讓 CloudTrail 將日誌檔案交付至 Amazon S3 儲存貯體。在主控台建立追蹤記錄時,該追蹤記錄預設會套用到所有區域。線索會記錄來自 AWS 分割區中所有區域的事件,然後將日誌檔案交付到您指定的 Amazon S3 儲存貯體。此外,您可以設定其他 AWS 服務,以進一步分析和處理 CloudTrail 日誌中所收集的事件資料。如需詳細資訊,請參閱下列內容:

AWS CloudTrail 中的 AWS WAF 資訊

AWS CloudTrail 會記錄所有 AWS WAF 動作,列在 AWS WAF API 參考中。例如,呼叫至ListWebACLUpdateWebACL,以及DeleteWebACL會在 CloudTrail 日誌檔中產生項目。

每一筆事件或日誌項目都會包含產生請求者的資訊。身分資訊可協助您判斷下列事項:

  • 該請求是否使用根或 IAM 使用者登入資料提出

  • 提出該請求時,是否使用了特定角色或聯合身分使用者的暫時安全登入資料

  • 該請求是否由另一項 AWS 服務提出

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 CloudTrail userIdentity 元素

AWS WAF 日誌檔案項目範例

追蹤是一種組態,能讓事件以日誌檔案的形式交付至您指定的 Amazon S3 儲存貯體。AWS CloudTrail日誌檔案包含一個或多個日誌項目。一個事件為任何來源提出的單一請求,並包含請求動作、請求的日期和時間、請求參數等資訊。CloudTrail 日誌檔案並非依公有 API 呼叫追蹤記錄的堆疊排序,因此不會以任何特定順序出現。

以下是 CloudTrail 日誌項目範例AWS WAFWeb ACL 作業。

範例:的 CloudTrail 日誌項目CreateWebACL

{ "eventVersion": "1.05", "userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "principalId", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::112233445566:assumed-role/Admin", "accountId": "112233445566", "accessKeyId": "accessKeyId", "sessionContext": { "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "principalId", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::112233445566:role/Admin", "accountId": "112233445566", "userName": "Admin" }, "webIdFederationData": {}, "attributes": { "mfaAuthenticated": "false", "creationDate": "2019-11-06T03:43:07Z" } } }, "eventTime": "2019-11-06T03:44:21Z", "eventSource": "wafv2.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "CreateWebACL", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "10.0.0.1", "userAgent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_12_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/78.0.3904.87 Safari/537.36", "requestParameters": { "name": "foo", "scope": "CLOUDFRONT", "defaultAction": { "block": {} }, "description": "foo", "rules": [ { "name": "foo", "priority": 1, "statement": { "geoMatchStatement": { "countryCodes": [ "AF", "AF" ] } }, "action": { "block": {} }, "visibilityConfig": { "sampledRequestsEnabled": true, "cloudWatchMetricsEnabled": true, "metricName": "foo" } } ], "visibilityConfig": { "sampledRequestsEnabled": true, "cloudWatchMetricsEnabled": true, "metricName": "foo" } }, "responseElements": { "summary": { "name": "foo", "id": "ebbcb976-8d59-4d20-8ca8-4ab2f6b7c07b", "description": "foo", "lockToken": "67551e73-49d8-4363-be48-244deea72ea9", "aRN": "arn:aws:wafv2:us-west-2:112233445566:global/webacl/foo/ebbcb976-8d59-4d20-8ca8-4ab2f6b7c07b" } }, "requestID": "c51521ba-3911-45ca-ba77-43aba50471ca", "eventID": "afd1a60a-7d84-417f-bc9c-7116cf029065", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2019-04-23", "recipientAccountId": "112233445566" }

範例:的 CloudTrail 日誌項目GetWebACL

{ "eventVersion": "1.05", "userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "AssumedRole", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::112233445566:assumed-role/Admin/admin", "accountId": "112233445566", "accessKeyId": "accessKeyId", "sessionContext": { "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "AssumedRole", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::112233445566:role/Admin", "accountId": "112233445566", "userName": "Admin" }, "webIdFederationData": {}, "attributes": { "mfaAuthenticated": "false", "creationDate": "2019-11-06T19:17:20Z" } } }, "eventTime": "2019-11-06T19:18:28Z", "eventSource": "wafv2.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "GetWebACL", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "10.0.0.1", "userAgent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_12_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/78.0.3904.87 Safari/537.36", "requestParameters": { "name": "foo", "scope": "CLOUDFRONT", "id": "webacl" }, "responseElements": null, "requestID": "f2db4884-4eeb-490c-afe7-67cbb494ce3b", "eventID": "7d563cd6-4123-4082-8880-c2d1fda4d90b", "readOnly": true, "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2019-04-23", "recipientAccountId": "112233445566" }

範例:的 CloudTrail 日誌項目UpdateWebACL

{ "eventVersion": "1.05", "userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "principalId", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::112233445566:assumed-role/Admin", "accountId": "112233445566", "accessKeyId": "accessKeyId", "sessionContext": { "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "principalId", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::112233445566:role/Admin", "accountId": "112233445566", "userName": "Admin" }, "webIdFederationData": {}, "attributes": { "mfaAuthenticated": "false", "creationDate": "2019-11-06T19:17:20Z" } } }, "eventTime": "2019-11-06T19:20:56Z", "eventSource": "wafv2.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "UpdateWebACL", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "10.0.0.1", "userAgent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_12_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/78.0.3904.87 Safari/537.36", "requestParameters": { "name": "foo", "scope": "CLOUDFRONT", "id": "ebbcb976-8d59-4d20-8ca8-4ab2f6b7c07b", "defaultAction": { "block": {} }, "description": "foo", "rules": [ { "name": "foo", "priority": 1, "statement": { "geoMatchStatement": { "countryCodes": [ "AF" ] } }, "action": { "block": {} }, "visibilityConfig": { "sampledRequestsEnabled": true, "cloudWatchMetricsEnabled": true, "metricName": "foo" } } ], "visibilityConfig": { "sampledRequestsEnabled": true, "cloudWatchMetricsEnabled": true, "metricName": "foo" }, "lockToken": "67551e73-49d8-4363-be48-244deea72ea9" }, "responseElements": { "nextLockToken": "a6b54c01-7975-4e6d-b7d0-2653cb6e231d" }, "requestID": "41c96e12-9790-46ab-b145-a230f358f2c2", "eventID": "517a10e6-4ca9-4828-af90-a5cff9756594", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2019-04-23", "recipientAccountId": "112233445566" }

範例:的 CloudTrail 日誌項目DeleteWebACL

{ "eventVersion": "1.05", "userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "principalId", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::112233445566:assumed-role/Admin/sheqiang-Isengard", "accountId": "112233445566", "accessKeyId": "accessKeyId", "sessionContext": { "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "principalId", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::112233445566:role/Admin", "accountId": "112233445566", "userName": "Admin" }, "webIdFederationData": {}, "attributes": { "mfaAuthenticated": "false", "creationDate": "2019-11-06T19:17:20Z" } } }, "eventTime": "2019-11-06T19:25:17Z", "eventSource": "wafv2.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "DeleteWebACL", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "10.0.0.1", "userAgent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_12_6) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/78.0.3904.87 Safari/537.36", "requestParameters": { "name": "foo", "scope": "CLOUDFRONT", "id": "ebbcb976-8d59-4d20-8ca8-4ab2f6b7c07b", "lockToken": "a6b54c01-7975-4e6d-b7d0-2653cb6e231d" }, "responseElements": null, "requestID": "71703f89-e139-440c-96d4-9c77f4cd7565", "eventID": "2f976624-b6a5-4a09-a8d0-aa3e9f4e5187", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2019-04-23", "recipientAccountId": "112233445566" }

範例:AWS WAF Classic 日誌檔項目

AWS WAF Classic 是舊版的 AWS WAF。如需相關資訊,請參閱「AWS WAF Classic」。

日誌項目會示範 CreateRuleGetRuleUpdateRuleDeleteRule 操作:

{ "Records": [ { "eventVersion": "1.03", "userIdentity": { "type": "IAMUser", "principalId": "AIDAIEP4IT4TPDEXAMPLE", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::777777777777:user/nate", "accountId": "777777777777", "accessKeyId": "AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE", "userName": "nate" }, "eventTime": "2016-04-25T21:35:14Z", "eventSource": "waf.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "CreateRule", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "AWS Internal", "userAgent": "console.amazonaws.com", "requestParameters": { "name": "0923ab32-7229-49f0-a0e3-66c81example", "changeToken": "l9434322-8685-4ed2-9c5b-9410bexample", "metricName": "0923ab32722949f0a0e366c81example" }, "responseElements": { "rule": { "metricName": "0923ab32722949f0a0e366c81example", "ruleId": "12132e64-6750-4725-b714-e7544example", "predicates": [ ], "name": "0923ab32-7229-49f0-a0e3-66c81example" }, "changeToken": "l9434322-8685-4ed2-9c5b-9410bexample" }, "requestID": "4e6b66f9-d548-11e3-a8a9-73e33example", "eventID": "923f4321-d378-4619-9b72-4605bexample", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2015-08-24", "recipientAccountId": "777777777777" }, { "eventVersion": "1.03", "userIdentity": { "type": "IAMUser", "principalId": "AIDAIEP4IT4TPDEXAMPLE", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::777777777777:user/nate", "accountId": "777777777777", "accessKeyId": "AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE", "userName": "nate" }, "eventTime": "2016-04-25T21:35:22Z", "eventSource": "waf.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "GetRule", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "AWS Internal", "userAgent": "console.amazonaws.com", "requestParameters": { "ruleId": "723c2943-82dc-4bc1-a29b-c7d73example" }, "responseElements": null, "requestID": "8e4f3211"-d548-11e3-a8a9-73e33example", "eventID": "an236542-d1f9-4639-bb3d-8d2bbexample", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2015-08-24", "recipientAccountId": "777777777777" }, { "eventVersion": "1.03", "userIdentity": { "type": "IAMUser", "principalId": "AIDAIEP4IT4TPDEXAMPLE", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::777777777777:user/nate", "accountId": "777777777777", "accessKeyId": "AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE", "userName": "nate" }, "eventTime": "2016-04-25T21:35:13Z", "eventSource": "waf.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "UpdateRule", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "AWS Internal", "userAgent": "console.amazonaws.com", "requestParameters": { "ruleId": "7237b123-7903-4d9e-8176-9d71dexample", "changeToken": "32343a11-35e2-4dab-81d8-6d408example", "updates": [ { "predicate": { "type": "SizeConstraint", "dataId": "9239c032-bbbe-4b80-909b-782c0example", "negated": false }, "action": "INSERT" } ] }, "responseElements": { "changeToken": "32343a11-35e2-4dab-81d8-6d408example" }, "requestID": "11918283-0b2d-11e6-9ccc-f9921example", "eventID": "00032abc-5bce-4237-a8ee-5f1a9example", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2015-08-24", "recipientAccountId": "777777777777" }, { "eventVersion": "1.03", "userIdentity": { "type": "IAMUser", "principalId": "AIDAIEP4IT4TPDEXAMPLE", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::777777777777:user/nate", "accountId": "777777777777", "accessKeyId": "AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE", "userName": "nate" }, "eventTime": "2016-04-25T21:35:28Z", "eventSource": "waf.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "DeleteRule", "awsRegion": "us-west-2", "sourceIPAddress": "AWS Internal", "userAgent": "console.amazonaws.com", "requestParameters": { "changeToken": "fd232003-62de-4ea3-853d-52932example", "ruleId": "3e3e2d11-fd8b-4333-8b03-1da95example" }, "responseElements": { "changeToken": "fd232003-62de-4ea3-853d-52932example" }, "requestID": "b23458a1-0b2d-11e6-9ccc-f9928example", "eventID": "a3236565-1a1a-4475-978e-81c12example", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2015-08-24", "recipientAccountId": "777777777777" } ] }

AWS Shield AdvancedCloudTrail 中的資訊

AWS Shield Advanced支援將下列動作記錄為 CloudTrail 日誌檔中的事件:

每一筆事件或日誌項目都會包含產生請求者的資訊。身分資訊可協助您判斷下列事項:

  • 該請求是否使用根或 IAM 使用者登入資料提出。

  • 提出該要求時,是否使用了特定角色或聯合身分使用者的暫時安全登入資料.

  • 該請求是否由另一項 AWS 服務提出。

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 CloudTrail userIdentity 元素

範例:Shield 進階日誌檔案項目

權杖是一種組態,能讓事件以記錄檔案的形式交付到您指定的 Amazon S3 儲存貯體。CloudTrail 日誌檔案包含一個或多個日誌項目。一個事件為任何來源提出的單一請求,並包含請求動作、請求的日期和時間、請求參數等資訊。CloudTrail 日誌檔案並非依公有 API 呼叫追蹤記錄的堆疊排序,因此不會以任何特定順序出現。

以下範例顯示的是展示DeleteProtectionListProtections動作。

[ { "eventVersion": "1.05", "userIdentity": { "type": "IAMUser", "principalId": "1234567890987654321231", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:user/SampleUser", "accountId": "123456789012", "accessKeyId": "1AFGDT647FHU83JHFI81H", "userName": "SampleUser" }, "eventTime": "2018-01-10T21:31:14Z", "eventSource": "shield.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "DeleteProtection", "awsRegion": "us-east-1", "sourceIPAddress": "AWS Internal", "userAgent": "aws-cli/1.14.10 Python/3.6.4 Darwin/16.7.0 botocore/1.8.14", "requestParameters": { "protectionId": "12345678-5104-46eb-bd03-agh4j8rh3b6n" }, "responseElements": null, "requestID": "95bc0042-f64d-11e7-abd1-1babdc7aa857", "eventID": "85263bf4-17h4-43bb-b405-fh84jhd8urhg", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "AWSShield_20160616", "recipientAccountId": "123456789012" }, { "eventVersion": "1.05", "userIdentity": { "type": "IAMUser", "principalId": "123456789098765432123", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:user/SampleUser", "accountId": "123456789012", "accessKeyId": "1AFGDT647FHU83JHFI81H", "userName": "SampleUser" }, "eventTime": "2018-01-10T21:30:03Z", "eventSource": "shield.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "ListProtections", "awsRegion": "us-east-1", "sourceIPAddress": "AWS Internal", "userAgent": "aws-cli/1.14.10 Python/3.6.4 Darwin/16.7.0 botocore/1.8.14", "requestParameters": null, "responseElements": null, "requestID": "6accca40-f64d-11e7-abd1-1bjfi8urhj47", "eventID": "ac0570bd-8dbc-41ac-a2c2-987j90j3h78f", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "AWSShield_20160616", "recipientAccountId": "123456789012" } ]

AWS Firewall ManagerCloudTrail 中的資訊

AWS Firewall Manager支援將下列動作記錄為 CloudTrail 日誌檔中的事件:

每一筆事件或日誌項目都會包含產生請求者的資訊。身分資訊可協助您判斷下列事項:

  • 該請求是否使用根或 IAM 使用者登入資料提出。

  • 提出該要求時,是否使用了特定角色或聯合身分使用者的暫時安全登入資料.

  • 該請求是否由另一項 AWS 服務提出。

如需詳細資訊,請參閱 CloudTrail userIdentity 元素

範例:Firewall Manager 日誌檔案項目

權杖是一種組態,能讓事件以記錄檔案的形式交付到您指定的 Amazon S3 儲存貯體。CloudTrail 日誌檔案包含一個或多個日誌項目。一個事件為任何來源提出的單一請求,並包含請求動作、請求的日期和時間、請求參數等資訊。CloudTrail 日誌檔案並非依公有 API 呼叫追蹤記錄的堆疊排序,因此不會以任何特定順序出現。

以下範例顯示的是展示GetAdminAccount—> 動作。

{ "eventVersion": "1.05", "userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "1234567890987654321231", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::123456789012:assumed-role/Admin/SampleUser", "accountId": "123456789012", "accessKeyId": "1AFGDT647FHU83JHFI81H", "sessionContext": { "attributes": { "mfaAuthenticated": "false", "creationDate": "2018-04-14T02:51:50Z" }, "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "1234567890987654321231", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/Admin", "accountId": "123456789012", "userName": "Admin" } } }, "eventTime": "2018-04-14T03:12:35Z", "eventSource": "fms.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "GetAdminAccount", "awsRegion": "us-east-1", "sourceIPAddress": "72.21.198.65", "userAgent": "console.amazonaws.com", "requestParameters": null, "responseElements": null, "requestID": "ae244f41-3f91-11e8-787b-dfaafef95fc1", "eventID": "5769af1e-14b1-4bd1-ba75-f023981d0a4a", "eventType": "AwsApiCall", "apiVersion": "2018-01-01", "recipientAccountId": "123456789012" }