Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud
User Guide for Windows Instances

Common Issues

The following are troubleshooting tips to help you solve common issues with EC2 instance running Windows Server.

EBS volumes don't initialize on Windows Server 2016 AMIs

Instances created from Windows Server 2012 R2 and earlier Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) use the EC2Config service for a variety of startup tasks, including initializing EBS volumes. To accommodate the change from .NET Framework to .NET Core, the EC2Config service has been deprecated on Windows Server 2016 AMIs and replaced by EC2Launch. EC2Launch is a bundle of Windows PowerShell scripts that perform many of the tasks performed by the EC2Config service. By default, EC2Launch does not initialize secondary volumes. You can configure EC2Launch to initialize disks automatically by either scheduling the script to run or by calling EC2Launch in user data.

To map drive letters to volumes

  1. On the instance you want to configure, open the C:\ProgramData\Amazon\EC2-Windows\Launch\Config\DriveLetterMappingConfig.json file in a text editor.

  2. Specify the volume settings using the following format:

    { "driveLetterMapping": [ { "volumeName": "Temporary Storage 0", "driveLetter": "H" } ] }
  3. Save your changes.

  4. In Windows PowerShell, use the following script to initialize the disks:

    PS C:\> cd /ProgramData/Amazon/EC2-Windows/Launch/Scripts/ PS C:\> ./InitializeDisks.ps1

    To initialize disks each time the instance boots, use the -Schedule flag:

    PS C:\> cd /ProgramData/Amazon/EC2-Windows/Launch/Scripts/ PS C:\> ./InitializeDisks.ps1 -Schedule

You can also initialize attached disks at the instance launch by adding the following path to the PowerShell script in Amazon EC2 user data.

<powershell> C:\ProgramData\Amazon\EC2-Windows\Launch\Scripts\InitializeDisks.ps1 </powershell>

For more information, see Configuring Instances with User Data.

Boot an EC2 Windows Instance into Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM)

If an instance running Microsoft Active Directory experiences a system failure or other critical issues you can troubleshoot the instance by booting into a special version of Safe Mode called Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM). In DSRM you can repair or recover Active Directory.

Driver Support for DSRM

How you enable DSRM and boot into the instance depends on the drivers the instance is running. In the EC2 console you can view driver version details for an instance from the System Log. The following tables shows which drivers are supported for DSRM.

Driver Versions DSRM Supported? Next Steps
Citrix PV 5.9 No Restore the instance from a backup. You cannot enable DSRM.
AWS PV 7.2.0 No Though DSRM is not supported for this driver, you can still detach the root volume from the instance, take a snapshot of the volume or create an AMI from it, and attach it to another instance in the same availability zone as a secondary volume. You can then enable DSRM (as described in this section).
AWS PV 7.2.2 and later Yes Detach the root volume, attach it to another instance, and enable DSRM (as described in this section).
Enhanced Networking Yes Detach the root volume, attach it to another instance, and enable DSRM (as described in this section).

For information about how to enable Enhanced Networking, see Enabling Enhanced Networking on Windows Instances in a VPC. For more information about upgrading AWS PV drivers, see Upgrading PV Drivers on Your Windows AMI.

Configure an Instance to Boot into DSRM

EC2 Windows instances do not have network connectivity before the operating system is running. For this reason, you cannot press the F8 button on your keyboard to select a boot option. You must use one of the following procedures to boot an EC2 Windows Server instance into DSRM.

If you suspect that Active Directory has been corrupted and the instance is still running, you can configure the instance to boot into DSRM using either the System Configuration dialog box or the command prompt.

To boot an online instance into DSRM using the System Configuration dialog box

  1. In the Run dialog box, type msconfig and press Enter.

  2. Choose the Boot tab.

  3. Under Boot options choose Safe boot.

  4. Choose Active Directory repair and then choose OK. The system prompts you to reboot the server.

To boot an online instance into DSRM using the command line

From a Command Prompt window, run the following command:

bcdedit /set safeboot dsrepair

If an instance is offline and unreachable, you must detach the root volume and attach it to another instance to enable DSRM mode.

To boot an offline instance into DSRM

  1. Open the Amazon EC2 console at

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Instances.

  3. Locate the affected instance. Open the context (right-click) menu for the instance, choose Instance State, and then choose Stop.

  4. Choose Launch Instance and create a temporary instance in the same Availability Zone as the affected instance. Choose an instance type that uses a different version of Windows. For example, if your instance is Windows Server 2008 R1, then choose a Windows Server 2008 R2 instance.


    If you do not create the instance in the same Availability Zone as the affected instance you will not be able to attach the root volume of the affected instance to the new instance.

  5. In the navigation pane, choose Volumes.

  6. Locate the root volume of the affected instance. Detach the volume and attach it to the temporary instance you created earlier. Attach it with the default device name (xvdf).

  7. Use Remote Desktop to connect to the temporary instance, and then use the Disk Management utility to make the volume available for use.

  8. Open a command prompt and run the following command. Replace D with the actual drive letter of the secondary volume you just attached:

    bcdedit /store D:\Boot\BCD /set {default} safeboot dsrepair
  9. In the Disk Management Utility, choose the drive you attached earlier, open the context (right-click) menu, and choose Offline.

  10. In the EC2 console, detach the affected volume from the temporary instance and reattach it to your original instance with the device name /dev/sda1. You must specify this device name to designate the volume as a root volume.

  11. Start the instance.

  12. After the instance passes the health checks in the EC2 console, connect to the instance using Remote Desktop and verify that it boots into DSRM mode.

  13. (Optional) Delete or stop the temporary instance you created in this procedure.