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AWS Identity and Access Management
User Guide

Creating a Role to Delegate Permissions to an IAM User

You can use IAM roles to delegate access to your AWS resources. With IAM roles, you can establish trust relationships between your trusting account and other AWS trusted accounts. The trusting account owns the resource to be accessed and the trusted account contains the users who need access to the resource. After you create the trust relationship, an IAM user or an application from the trusted account can use the AWS Security Token Service (AWS STS) AssumeRole API action. This action provides temporary security credentials that enable access to AWS resources in your account. The accounts can both be controlled by you, or the account with the users can be controlled by a third party. If the other account with the users is in an AWS account that you do not control, then you can use the externalID attribute and a unique identifier supplied by the third-party account. This helps ensure that access occurs only in the correct contexts. For more information, see How to Use an External ID When Granting Access to Your AWS Resources to a Third Party.

For information about how to use roles to delegate permissions, see Roles Terms and Concepts.

Creating a Role (Console)

You can use the AWS Management Console to create a role that an IAM user can switch to.

To create a role

  1. Sign in to the IAM console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/iam/.

  2. In the navigation pane of the console, choose Roles and then choose Create new role.

  3. On the Select role type page, expand the Role for cross-account access section, and then choose the type of role that you want to create:

    • Choose Select for Provide access between AWS accounts you own if you are the administrator of both the user account and the resource account, or both accounts belong to the same company. This is also the option to choose when the users, role, and resource to be accessed are all in the same account.

    • Choose Select for Allows IAM users from a 3rd party AWS account to access this account if you are the administrator of the account that owns the resource and you want to grant permissions to users from an account that you do not control. This option requires you to specify an external ID (which the third party must provide to you). With this option, you can exercise additional control over the circumstances in which the third party can use the role to access your resources. For more information, see How to Use an External ID When Granting Access to Your AWS Resources to a Third Party.

      Important

      Choosing this option enables access to the role only through the AWS CLI, Tools for Windows PowerShell, or the AWS API. This is because you cannot use the AWS console to switch to a role that has an externalID condition in its trust policy. However, you can create this kind of access programmatically by writing a script or an application using the relevant SDK. For more information and a sample script, see How to Enable Cross-Account Access to the AWS Management Console in the AWS Security Blog.

  4. On the next page, specify the AWS account ID to which you want to grant access to your resources.

    The administrator of the specified trusted account can grant permission to assume this role to any IAM user in the trusted account. To do this, the administrator attaches a policy to the user or a group that grants permission for the sts:AssumeRole action and that specifies the role's ARN as the Resource.

  5. If you chose Allows IAM users from a 3rd party AWS account to access this account on the Select role type page, type the external ID provided by the administrator of the third party account. This automatically adds a condition to the trust policy that allows the user to assume the role only if the request includes the correct sts:ExternalID. For more information, see How to Use an External ID When Granting Access to Your AWS Resources to a Third Party.

  6. If you want to restrict the role to users who sign in by using multi-factor authentication (MFA) device, select the Require MFA option. This adds a condition to the role's trust policy that checks for an MFA sign-in. A user who wants to assume the role must sign in with a temporary one-time password from a configured MFA device. Users without MFA authentication cannot assume the role. For more information about MFA, see Using Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) in AWS

  7. Choose Next Step.

  8. On the Attach policy page, choose one or more permissions policies to attach to the role. Choose policies that specify what actions can be done on specific resources (similar to setting permissions for IAM groups). For information about managing permissions by using policies, see Overview of AWS IAM Permissions.

    The permissions that you specify are available to any entity that uses the role. By default, a role has no permissions.

    Select the box next to the policy that assigns the permissions that you want the users to have, and then choose Attach policy. You can choose to select no policies at this time, create the policies later, and then attach them to the role.

  9. For Role name, type a suffix to add to the service-linked role default name. This suffix helps you identify the purpose of this role. Role names must be unique within your AWS account. They are not distinguished by case. For example, you cannot create roles named both PRODROLE and prodrole. Because various entities might reference the role, you cannot edit the name of the role after it has been created.

  10. (Optional) For Role description, type a description for the new role.

  11. Review the role settings. Note the link provided for you to give to users who can use the role. When the user chooses this link, the user is taken directly to the Switch Role page with the Account ID and Role Name already filled in. The user is asked for credentials if he or she is not already signed in. The user can optionally set a Display Name and can select a Display Color. When the user chooses Switch Role, the user immediately begins operating with the new permissions.

    Note

    For later easy selection, the IAM console caches the last five roles that you use. If your users need more than five roles, consider the following solutions for easy access:

    • If only a small number of users switch roles, recommend that they bookmark the links that you send them.

    • If many users switch roles, consider creating a central location like a webpage that contains all the links that users need to access.

    The format of the link is as follows:

    https://signin.aws.amazon.com/switchrole?account=ACCOUNT_NUMBER&roleName=ROLE_NAME&displayName=DISPLAYNAME

  12. Choose Create role to complete the creation of the role.

    Important

    Remember that this is only the first half of the configuration required. You must also give individual users in the trusted account permissions to switch to the role. For more information about this step, see Granting a User Permissions to Switch Roles.

After you create the role and grant it permissions to perform AWS tasks or access AWS resources, the user can switch to the role. For more information, see Switching to a Role (AWS Management Console).

Creating a Role (AWS CLI)

Creating a role from the AWS CLI involves multiple steps. When you use the console to create a role, many of the steps are done for you, but with the AWS CLI you must explicitly perform each step yourself. You must create the policy and assign a permissions policy to the role.

To create a role for cross-account access using the AWS CLI

Use the following commands:

The following example shows both steps in a simple environment. The example assumes that you are using a client computer running Windows, and have already configured your command line interface with your account credentials and region. For more information, see Configuring the AWS Command Line Interface.

The sample trust policy referenced in the first command contains the following JSON code to enable users in the account 123456789012 to assume the role , but only if the user provides MFA authentication. For more information about MFA, see Using Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) in AWS.

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{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": { "Effect": "Allow", "Principal": { "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:root" }, "Action": "sts:AssumeRole", "Condition": { "Bool": { "aws:MultiFactorAuthPresent": "true" } } } }

Important

If your Principal element contains an ARN that points to a specific IAM role or user, then that ARN is transformed to a unique principal ID when the policy is saved. This helps mitigate the risk of someone escalating their privileges by removing and recreating the role or user. You don't normally see this ID in the console, because there is also a reverse transformation back to the ARN when the trust policy is displayed. However, if you delete the role or user, then the relationship is broken. The policy no longer applies, even if you recreate the user or role because it does not match the principal ID stored in the trust policy. When this happens, the principal ID shows up in the console because AWS can no longer map it back to an ARN. The result is that if you delete and recreate a user or role referenced in a trust policy's Principal element, you must edit the role to replace the ARN. The user or role is transformed into the new principal ID when you save the policy.

The managed policy referenced in the second command is assumed to already exists in IAM. This policy allows the user who assumes the role to perform only the ListBucket action on an S3 bucket named example_bucket. The policy looks like this:

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{ "Version": "2012-10-17", "Statement": { "Effect": "Allow", "Action": "s3:ListBucket", "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::example_bucket" } }

The commands to run are the following:

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# Create the role and attach the trust policy that allows users in an account to switch to the role. $ aws iam create-role --role-name Test-UserAccess-Role --assume-role-policy-document file://C:\policies\trustpolicyforacct123456789012.json # Attach the permissions policy (in this example a managed policy) to the role to specify what it is allowed to do. $ aws iam attach-role-policy --role-name Test-UserAccess-Role --policy-arn arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/PolicyForRole

Important

Remember that this is only the first half of the configuration required. You must also give individual users in the trusted account permissions to switch to the role. For more information about this step, see Granting a User Permissions to Switch Roles.

After you create the role and grant it permissions to perform AWS tasks or access AWS resources, the user can switch to the role. For more information, see Switching to an IAM Role (AWS Command Line Interface).

Creating a Role (AWS API)

You can use API calls to create a role that an IAM user can switch to.

To create a role in code using the API

Use the following commands:

  • Create a role: CreateRole

    For the role's trust policy, you can specify a file location.

  • Attach a managed access policy to the role: AttachRolePolicy

    -or-

    Create an inline access policy for the role: PutRolePolicy

Important

Remember that this is only the first half of the configuration required. You must also give individual users in the trusted account permissions to switch to the role. For more information about this step, see Granting a User Permissions to Switch Roles.

After you create the role and grant it permissions to perform AWS tasks or access AWS resources, the user can switch to the role. For more information, see Switching to an IAM Role (API).

For more information about MFA, see Using Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) in AWS.