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Amazon Cognito
Developer Guide

User Groups

Support for groups in Amazon Cognito user pools enables you to create and manage groups, add users to groups, and remove users from groups. Use groups to create collections of users to manage their permissions or to represent different types of users. You can assign an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) role to a group to define the permissions for members of a group.

You can use groups to create a collection of users in a user pool, which is often done to set the permissions for those users. For example, you can create separate groups for users who are readers, contributors, and editors of your website and app. Using the IAM role associated with a group, you can also set different permissions for those different groups so that only contributors can put content into Amazon S3 and only editors can publish content through an API in Amazon API Gateway.

You can create and manage groups in a user pool from the AWS Management Console, the APIs, and the CLI. As a developer (using AWS credentials), you can create, read, update, delete, and list the groups for a user pool. You can also add users and remove users from groups.

There is no additional cost for using groups within a user pool. See Amazon Cognito Pricing for more information.

You can see this feature used in the SpaceFinder reference app.

Assigning IAM Roles to Groups

You can use groups to control permissions to access your resources in AWS by assigning an IAM role for the users within a group. When you create a group, you can specify the IAM role for users in that group by providing a role ARN for the group. IAM roles have associated policies that define the resources and actions that are allowed and denied for users. IAM roles and their permissions are tied to the temporary AWS credentials that Amazon Cognito identity pools provide for authenticated users. Users in a group are automatically assigned the IAM role for the group when AWS credentials are provided by Amazon Cognito Federated Identities using the Choose role from token option.

Individual users can be in multiple groups. As a developer, you have the following options for automatically choosing the IAM role when a user is in multiple groups:

  • You can assign precedence values to each group. The group with the better (lower) precedence will be chosen and its associated IAM role will be applied.

  • Your app can also choose from among the available roles when requesting AWS credentials for a user through an identity pool, by specifying a role ARN in the GetCredentialsForIdentity CustomRoleARN parameter. The specified IAM role must match a role that is available to the user.

Assigning Precedence Values to Groups

A user can belong to more than one group. In the user's ID token, the cognito:groups claim contains the list of all the groups a user belongs to. The cognito:roles claim contains the list of roles corresponding to the groups.

Because a user can belong to more than one group, each group can be assigned a precedence. This is a non-negative number that specifies the precedence of this group relative to the other groups that a user can belong to in the user pool. Zero is the top precedence value. Groups with lower precedence values take precedence over groups with higher or null precedence values. If a user belongs to two or more groups, it is the group with the lowest precedence value whose IAM role is applied to the cognito:preferred_role claim in the user's ID token.

Two groups can have the same precedence value. If this happens, neither group takes precedence over the other. If two groups with the same precedence value have the same role ARN, that role is used in the cognito:preferred_role claim in ID tokens for users in each group. If the two groups have different role ARNs, the cognito:preferred_role claim is not set in users' ID tokens.

Using Groups to Control Permission with Amazon API Gateway

You can use groups in a user pool to control permission with Amazon API Gateway. The groups that a user is a member of are included in the ID token provided by a user pool when a user signs in. You can submit those ID tokens with requests to Amazon API Gateway, use a custom authorizer Lambda function to verify the token, and then inspect which groups a user belongs to. See this blog post for an example of using user pool tokens with an Amazon API Gateway custom authorizer.

Limitations on Groups

User groups are subject to the following limitations:

  • You can create up to 25 groups per user pool.

  • Groups cannot be nested.

  • You cannot search for users in a group.

  • You cannot search for groups by name, but you can list groups.

  • Only groups with no members can be deleted.

Creating a New Group in the AWS Management Console

The Groups tab in the Users and groups tab has a Create group button.


          Create a new group in the Groups tab in the Users and groups tab.

When you choose Create group, a Create group form appears. This form is where you enter information about the new group. Only the Name field is required. If you are integrating a user pool with an identity pool, the IAM role setting determines which role is assigned in the user's ID token if the identity pool is configured to choose the role from the token. If you don't have roles already defined, choose Create new role. If you have more than one group, and your users can be assigned to more than one group, you can set a Precedence value for each group. The precedence value can be any non-negative integer. Zero is the top precedence value.


          Create group form in the Users and groups tab.