Windows accelerated computing instances - Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

Windows accelerated computing instances

Accelerated computing instances use hardware accelerators, or co-processors, to perform some functions, such as floating point number calculations, graphics processing, or data pattern matching, more efficiently than is possible in software running on CPUs. These instances enable more parallelism for higher throughput on compute-intensive workloads.

If you require high processing capability, you'll benefit from using accelerated computing instances, which provide access to hardware-based compute accelerators such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs).

GPU instances

GPU-based instances provide access to NVIDIA GPUs with thousands of compute cores. You can use these instances to accelerate scientific, engineering, and rendering applications by leveraging the CUDA or Open Computing Language (OpenCL) parallel computing frameworks. You can also use them for graphics applications, including game streaming, 3-D application streaming, and other graphics workloads.

If your application needs a small amount of additional graphics acceleration, but is better suited for an instance type with different compute, memory, or storage specifications, use an Elastic Graphics accelerator instead. For more information, see Amazon Elastic Graphics.

G5 instances

G5 instances use NVIDIA A10G GPUs and provide high performance for graphics-intensive applications such as remote workstations, video rendering, and cloud gaming, and deep learning models for applications such as natural language processing, computer vision, and recommendation engines. These instances feature up to 8 NVIDIA A10G GPUs, second generation AMD EPY processors, up to 100 Gbps of network bandwidth, and up to 7.6 TB of local NVMe SSD storage.

For more information, see Amazon EC2 G5 Instances.

G4ad and G4dn instances

G4ad instances use AMD Radeon Pro V520 GPUs and 2nd generation AMD EPYC processors, and are well-suited for graphics applications such as remote graphics workstations, game streaming, and rendering that leverage industry-standard APIs such as OpenGL, DirectX, and Vulkan. They provide up to 4 AMD Radeon Pro V520 GPUs, 64 vCPUs, 25 Gbps networking, and 2.4 TB local NVMe-based SSD storage.

G4dn instances use NVIDIA Tesla GPUs and provide a cost-effective, high-performance platform for general purpose GPU computing using the CUDA or machine learning frameworks along with graphics applications using DirectX or OpenGL. These instances provide high- bandwidth networking, powerful half and single-precision floating-point capabilities, along with INT8 and INT4 precisions. Each GPU has 16 GiB of GDDR6 memory, making G4dn instances well-suited for machine learning inference, video transcoding, and graphics applications like remote graphics workstations and game streaming in the cloud.

For more information, see Amazon EC2 G4 Instances.

G4dn instances support NVIDIA GRID Virtual Workstation. For more information, see NVIDIA Marketplace offerings.

G3 instances

These instances use NVIDIA Tesla M60 GPUs and provide a cost-effective, high-performance platform for graphics applications using DirectX or OpenGL. G3 instances also provide NVIDIA GRID Virtual Workstation features, such as support for four monitors with resolutions up to 4096x2160, and NVIDIA GRID Virtual Applications. G3 instances are well-suited for applications such as 3D visualizations, graphics-intensive remote workstations, 3D rendering, video encoding, virtual reality, and other server-side graphics workloads requiring massively parallel processing power.

For more information, see Amazon EC2 G3 Instances.

G3 instances support NVIDIA GRID Virtual Workstation and NVIDIA GRID Virtual Applications. To activate either of these features, see Activate NVIDIA GRID Virtual Applications.

G2 instances

These instances use NVIDIA GRID K520 GPUs and provide a cost-effective, high-performance platform for graphics applications using DirectX or OpenGL. NVIDIA GRID GPUs also support NVIDIA’s fast capture and encode API operations. Example applications include video creation services, 3D visualizations, streaming graphics-intensive applications, and other server-side graphics workloads.

P3 instances

These instances use NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs and are designed for general purpose GPU computing using the CUDA or OpenCL programming models or through a machine learning framework. P3 instances provide high-bandwidth networking, powerful half, single, and double-precision floating-point capabilities, and up to 32 GiB of memory per GPU, which makes them ideal for deep learning, computational fluid dynamics, computational finance, seismic analysis, molecular modeling, genomics, rendering, and other server-side GPU compute workloads. Tesla V100 GPUs do not support graphics mode.

For more information, see Amazon EC2 P3 Instances.

P3 instances support NVIDIA NVLink peer to peer transfers. For more information, see NVIDIA NVLink.

P2 instances

P2 instances use NVIDIA Tesla K80 GPUs and are designed for general purpose GPU computing using the CUDA or OpenCL programming models. P2 instances provide high-bandwidth networking, powerful single and double precision floating-point capabilities, and 12 GiB of memory per GPU, which makes them ideal for deep learning, graph databases, high-performance databases, computational fluid dynamics, computational finance, seismic analysis, molecular modeling, genomics, rendering, and other server-side GPU compute workloads.

P2 instances support NVIDIA GPUDirect peer to peer transfers. For more information, see NVIDIA GPUDirect.

Hardware specifications

The following is a summary of the hardware specifications for accelerated computing instances.

Instance type Default vCPUs Memory (GiB) Accelerators
f1.2xlarge 8 122 1
f1.4xlarge 16 244 2
f1.16xlarge 64 976 8
g2.2xlarge 8 15 1
g2.8xlarge 32 60 4
g3s.xlarge 4 30.5 1
g3.4xlarge 16 122 1
g3.8xlarge 32 244 2
g3.16xlarge 64 488 4
g4ad.xlarge 4 16 1
g4ad.2xlarge 8 32 1
g4ad.4xlarge 16 64 1
g4ad.8xlarge 32 128 2
g4ad.16xlarge 64 256 4
g4dn.xlarge 4 16 1
g4dn.2xlarge 8 32 1
g4dn.4xlarge 16 64 1
g4dn.8xlarge 32 128 1
g4dn.12xlarge 48 192 4
g4dn.16xlarge 64 256 1
g4dn.metal 96 384 8
g5.xlarge 4 16 1
g5.2xlarge 8 32 1
g5.4xlarge 16 64 1
g5.8xlarge 32 128 1
g5.12xlarge 48 192 4
g5.16xlarge 64 256 1
g5.24xlarge 96 384 4
g5.48xlarge 192 768 8
p2.xlarge 4 61 1
p2.8xlarge 32 488 8
p2.16xlarge 64 732 16
p3.2xlarge 8 61 1
p3.8xlarge 32 244 4
p3.16xlarge 64 488 8
p3dn.24xlarge 96 768 8

For more information about the hardware specifications for each Amazon EC2 instance type, see Amazon EC2 Instance Types.

For more information about specifying CPU options, see Optimize CPU options.

Instance performance

EBS-optimized instances enable you to get consistently high performance for your EBS volumes by eliminating contention between Amazon EBS I/O and other network traffic from your instance. Some accelerated computing instances are EBS-optimized by default at no additional cost. For more information, see Amazon EBS–optimized instances.

Network performance

You can enable enhanced networking on supported instance types to provide lower latencies, lower network jitter, and higher packet-per-second (PPS) performance. Most applications do not consistently need a high level of network performance, but can benefit from access to increased bandwidth when they send or receive data. For more information, see Enhanced networking on Windows.

The following is a summary of network performance for accelerated computing instances that support enhanced networking.

Instance type Network performance Enhanced networking
f1.4xlarge and smaller | g3.4xlarge | g3s.xlarge | g4ad.4xlarge and smaller | g5.2xlarge and smaller | p3.2xlarge Up to 10 Gbps † ENA
g3.8xlarge | p2.8xlarge | p3.8xlarge 10 Gbps ENA
g4ad.8xlarge 15 Gbps ENA
g4dn.4xlarge and smaller | g5.4xlarge Up to 25 Gbps † ENA
f1.16xlarge | g3.16xlarge | g4ad.16xlarge | g5.8xlarge | g5.16xlarge | p2.16xlarge | p3.16xlarge 25 Gbps ENA
g5.12xlarge 40 Gbps ENA
g4dn.8xlarge | g4dn.12xlarge | g4dn.16xlarge | g5.24xlarge 50 Gbps ENA
g4dn.metal | g5.48xlarge | p3dn.24xlarge 100 Gbps ENA

† These instances have a baseline bandwidth and can use a network I/O credit mechanism to burst beyond their baseline bandwidth on a best effort basis. For more information, see instance network bandwidth.

Instance type Baseline bandwidth (Gbps) Burst bandwidth (Gbps)
f1.2xlarge 2.5 10
f1.4xlarge 5 10
g3.4xlarge 5 10
g3s.xlarge 1.25 10
g4ad.xlarge 2 10
g4ad.2xlarge 4.167 10
g4ad.4xlarge 8.333 10
g4dn.xlarge 5 25
g4dn.2xlarge 10 25
g4dn.4xlarge 20 25
g5.xlarge 2.5 10
g5.2xlarge 5 10
g5.4xlarge 10 25
p3.2xlarge 2.5 10

SSD I/O performance

If you use all the SSD-based instance store volumes available to your instance, you can get up to the IOPS (4,096 byte block size) performance listed in the following table (at queue depth saturation). Otherwise, you get lower IOPS performance.

Instance Size 100% Random Read IOPS Write IOPS
g4ad.xlarge 10,417 8,333
g4ad.2xlarge 20,833 16,667
g4ad.4xlarge 41,667 33,333
g4ad.8xlarge 83,333 66,667
g4ad.16xlarge 166,667 133,333
g5.xlarge 40,625 20,313
g5.2xlarge 40,625 20,313
g5.4xlarge 125,000 62,500
g5.8xlarge 250,000 125,000
g5.12xlarge 312,500 156,250
g5.16xlarge 250,000 125,000
g5.24xlarge 312,500 156,250
g5.48xlarge 625,000 312,500

As you fill the SSD-based instance store volumes for your instance, the number of write IOPS that you can achieve decreases. This is due to the extra work the SSD controller must do to find available space, rewrite existing data, and erase unused space so that it can be rewritten. This process of garbage collection results in internal write amplification to the SSD, expressed as the ratio of SSD write operations to user write operations. This decrease in performance is even larger if the write operations are not in multiples of 4,096 bytes or not aligned to a 4,096-byte boundary. If you write a smaller amount of bytes or bytes that are not aligned, the SSD controller must read the surrounding data and store the result in a new location. This pattern results in significantly increased write amplification, increased latency, and dramatically reduced I/O performance.

SSD controllers can use several strategies to reduce the impact of write amplification. One such strategy is to reserve space in the SSD instance storage so that the controller can more efficiently manage the space available for write operations. This is called over-provisioning. The SSD-based instance store volumes provided to an instance don't have any space reserved for over-provisioning. To reduce write amplification, we recommend that you leave 10% of the volume unpartitioned so that the SSD controller can use it for over-provisioning. This decreases the storage that you can use, but increases performance even if the disk is close to full capacity.

For instance store volumes that support TRIM, you can use the TRIM command to notify the SSD controller whenever you no longer need data that you've written. This provides the controller with more free space, which can reduce write amplification and increase performance. For more information, see Instance store volume TRIM support.

Instance features

The following is a summary of features for accelerated computing instances.

EBS only NVMe EBS Instance store Placement group




NVMe *















NVMe *





NVMe *


G5 No Yes NVMe * Yes







24xlarge: No

All other sizes: Yes

24xlarge: Yes

All other sizes: No

24xlarge: NVMe *


* The root device volume must be an Amazon EBS volume.

For more information, see the following:

Release notes

  • You must launch the instance using an HVM AMI.

  • Instances built on the Nitro System have the following requirements:

    The current AWS Windows AMIs meet these requirements.

  • GPU-based instances can't access the GPU unless the NVIDIA drivers are installed. For more information, see Install NVIDIA drivers on Windows instances.

  • Launching a bare metal instance boots the underlying server, which includes verifying all hardware and firmware components. This means that it can take 20 minutes from the time the instance enters the running state until it becomes available over the network.

  • To attach or detach EBS volumes or secondary network interfaces from a bare metal instance requires PCIe native hotplug support.

  • Bare metal instances use a PCI-based serial device rather than an I/O port-based serial device. The upstream Linux kernel and the latest Amazon Linux AMIs support this device. Bare metal instances also provide an ACPI SPCR table to enable the system to automatically use the PCI-based serial device. The latest Windows AMIs automatically use the PCI-based serial device.

  • There is a limit of 100 AFIs per Region.

  • There is a limit on the total number of instances that you can launch in a Region, and there are additional limits on some instance types. For more information, see How many instances can I run in Amazon EC2? in the Amazon EC2 FAQ.

  • If you launch a multi-GPU instance with a Windows AMI that was created on a single-GPU instance, Windows does not automatically install the NVIDIA driver for all GPUs. You must authorize the driver installation for the new GPU hardware. You can correct this manually in the Device Manager by opening the Other device category (the inactive GPUs do not appear under Display Adapters). For each inactive GPU, open the context (right-click) menu, choose Update Driver Software, and then choose the default Automatic Update option.

  • When using Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), GPUs that use the WDDM driver model are replaced with a non-accelerated Remote Desktop display driver. We recommend that you use a different remote access tool to access your GPU, such as Teradici Cloud Access Software, NICE Desktop Cloud Visualization (DCV), or VNC. You can also use one of the GPU AMIs from the AWS Marketplace because they provide remote access tools that support 3D acceleration.